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Articles by A.S. Ahmed
Total Records ( 6 ) for A.S. Ahmed
  A.S. Ahmed
  This study was conducted to assess the effect of genetic crossing using four chicken lines Hajar1 line, Hajar2 line, Hisex sires×Hajar1 dams cross (HiH1) and Hisex sires×Hajar2 dams cross (HiH2) on the maternal immunity against Newcastle Disease (ND) of chicks for the first 14 days of age. Each line consisted of 100 unvaccinated chicks represented both sexes equally in five replicates in a caging house system. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Serum samples were collected at 3, 7, 10 and 14 days of age for ND titration. Spleen and bursa weight were evaluated at 14 days of age. The results indicated comparable ND antibody levels between all lines at 3 days of age. Cross lines chicks showed significantly low ND antibody level by 7, 10 and 14 days of age compared to local lines. Sex of the birds did not participate as a major factor that affect ND antibody level or glands weight. Bursa weight did not affected by genetic line while spleen weight demonstrated trivial change due to the genetic line effect. Although the literature provided little attention to the role of male partner in the maternal immunity efficiency, our results indicated the possible effect of male parents in modulating the maternal antibody efficiency to ND in their offspring. In addition, the genetic line and the male parent participation in maternal antibodies degradation process over the first 14 days of age should be considered.
  A.S. Ahmed , J.M. Alhamada and Z.M. Hakami
  One thousand and three hundred chicks were used to describe body weight, hematocrit percentage (HTC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), total plasma protein (TP) and albumin concentration (Alb) of two recently characterized local Saudi chicken lines Hajar 1 and 2 over the first 30 weeks of age. Three hundred and twenty male plus three hundred and five females of Hajar 1 and three hundred and forty six males plus three hundred and twenty nine females of Hajar 2 lines were used. At hatch, initial body weights were recorded individually, then blood samples were collected and body weight were recorded individually at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16,18, 22, 26 and 30 weeks of age. The results indicated the genetic group effect on the body weight in male birds starting from the second week of age. The genetic group also affected HTC after 12 weeks of age. The sex effect was observable at most of the evaluated parameters. The results showed the effect of line-sex interaction on TP and Alb at late stages of the experiment. The study provides the first set of results to describe some blood parameters for Hajar 1 and 2 chicken lines. The results emphasized the effect of genetic group and sex besides their interaction in different ages on the changes in the selected blood parameters. The results revealed partial explanation to support previous findings about production performance for those lines. The study highlighted the importance of assessment of locally characterized chicken lines to figure out their unique characters.
  A.S. Ahmed and Adel A. Rezk
  This study was conducted to assess antibody response indicators against Newcastle Disease (ND) and Sheep Red Blood Cells (SRBC) in addition to DNA polymorphism using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA technique (RAPD). Five hundred female chicks represented equally Hajar1 Saudi chicken Line, Hajar2 Saudi chicken line, Hisex commercial layers, Ross 308 broiler and Egyptian Fayoumi were used in the present study in 4 replicates per each line for the first five weeks of age. Weekly body weight, weekly ND antibody titer and SRBC antibody titer at 3, 7 and 10 day post injection were assessed. Six RAPD markers have been selected and used for genetic diversity assessment within and among lines. The results indicated comparable values of body weight, ND titer, SRBC titer between Hajar1 and Hajar2 lines. Whereas, there were significant diversity indicators among different lines in the different measuring points. Intra-lines gene diversity started from 0.16 for Hajar2 line and reached 0.26 for Fayoumi line. Hisex and Ross chicken samples showed comparable gene diversity. The dendrogram showed two main clusters, the first cluster included only Ross broilers, while the second cluster included the rest of chicken lines. Higher genetic similarity have been observed between Saudi chicken lines and Hisex than similarity between them and Fayoumi chicken samples. The current results indicated the antibody response diversity among the chicken lines. Intra and inter populations genetic diversities considered the first to be reported using Hajar1 and Hajar2 lines in the context of the global plan of conserving animal genetic resources.
  E.A. Almuhanna , A.S. Ahmed and Y.M. Al-Yousif
  The concentration and particle size distribution of airborne particles and toxic gases in two commercial poultry houses were measured and analyzed. This field study was conducted at Al-Ahsa of Saudi Arabia in order to characterize air contaminants in the mechanically ventilated poultry houses under the climatic conditions of Saudi Arabia. In the mechanically ventilated poultry houses (M.V.), the mean Total Suspended Particle concentration (TSP) was 4.25 and 3.64 mg/m3, respectively, the PM10 concentration (particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 10 μm) was 2.26 and 1.79 mg/m3, respectively and the PM2.5 concentration (particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm) was 0.08 and 0.07 mg/m3 respectively. The TSP values were greater than the suggested threshold values for indoor air contaminants in livestock buildings; however, the PM2.5 values of both houses did not exceed the suggested threshold values for indoor air contaminants in livestock buildings. The Geometric Mean Diameter (GMD) based on the mass concentration of particles in both houses was 8.45 and 8.31 μm, respectively. The concentration of NH3, CO2, SO2, NO2 and H2S was measured and the results indicated that ammonia was the dominant gas in both houses. Moreover, the majority of gases did not exceed the threshold values. At the M.V. poultry house, the concentration of airborne particles and toxic gases was strongly affected by the barn ventilation rate. The current results suggested that the increase of air contaminants and gases negatively affect the general productive performance and immune response under commercial conditions.
  A.S. Ahmed , S.M. El-Bahr and A.A. Al-Azraqi
  One day old broiler chicks (n=240) were used to assess the effect of canola and/or olive oil on performance, immunological and biochemical parameters of broiler chickens fed iso caloric and high caloric diets under a hot climate condition. Birds were divided into 2 groups each of 120 birds based on the level of diet energy as iso caloric and high caloric diet groups. Each group were divided equally into four diet treatments in three replicates, control diet free of examined oils, diet containing 2% canola oil, diet containing 2% olive oil and diet containing 1% canola oil + 1% olive oil. Birds housed in wire cage system in an open house system. Experimental diets started at 15 days old. Weight gain, food conversion, hemoglobin, hematocrite and immune response were determined. Liver and kidney functions were evaluated by assessing the activities of Liver enzymes namely alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), In addition to kidney function biomarkers (Creatinine, Uric acids and blood urea nitrogen, BUN). Inclusion of canola and olive–canola oils combination in broilers ration increased body weight gain, improved feed conversion and keel length. Both olive and canola oils decreased AST in birds fed iso caloric ration, both oils increased the activity of this enzyme in serum of birds fed high caloric diet. In contrast to canola oil, olive oil did not affect the activity of ALT in birds fed iso and high caloric diets whereas oils combination were not recommended whenever iso caloric diet was available. Moreover, renal function was improved in birds fed ration mixed with olive oil or both oils combination. The examined doses of olive oil was effective than canola oil as feed additives to broilers at the levels of peripheral blood and immune response tested against sheep red blood cells.
  E. Muleya , A.S. Ahmed , A.M. Sipamla and F.M. Mtunzi
  Ledebouria revoluta, Berkheya setifera and Carissa bispinosa are some of the medicinal plants used in South African traditional medicine. An investigation to evaluate antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of the root crude extracts and fractions from the three plants was carried out. Reduction by 2, 2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS.+) and 2, 2-di (4-tert-octylphenyl)-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.) radicals were used to assess antioxidant capacities by change in absorbance in a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Anti-inflammatory activity of the plant extracts against 15-soybean derived lipoxygenase (15-LOX) enzyme was evaluated as increase in absorbance at 234 nm after addition of soya bean derived 15-LOX, using linoleic acid (134 µM) as substrate. Anti-microbial activities were determined by assessing the plant samples’Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) by a micro dilution method. Carissa bispinosa and Berkheya setifera have shown good to moderate antimicrobial activity. Ledebouria revoluta displayed good activities (20 µg/mL) for both acetone and methanol fractions against E. coli and good-moderate activity (160-320 µg/mL) against the rest of the bacterial strains used. Anti-fungal activity for Ledebouria revoluta methanol fraction (20 µg/mL) is high against Candida albicans. Percentage inhibition of 15-soybean lipoxygenase enzyme by the crude extracts at concentration of 25 µg/mL was for Berkheya setifera, 80%, Carissa bispinosa, 65% and Ledebouria revoluta, 40%.
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