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Articles by A.S. Oyekale
Total Records ( 8 ) for A.S. Oyekale
  A.S. Oyekale
  Declining agricultural production on some tropical farmland has prompted increased use of some inputs while continuous cropping prevails. This study analyzed the effect of intensive use of land on technical efficiency of farmers in Southwestern Nigeria. Data collected randomly from 303 selected farmers in 3 states. Results show that farmers from Osun State have the highest indices of intensification with respect to land use intensity, fertilizer use intensity and crop diversification. The Maximum Likelihood Estimates (MLE) of the frontier production function showed that the farmers are grossly inefficient. The parameters of chemical fertilizer and land areas are statistically significant (p< 0.01) while the coefficient of land area is with the highest elasticity of 0.265. Average technical efficiency is 24.78%, which portrays low agricultural productivity. Intensity of land use, at the present level reduces inefficiency possibly due to adoption of some soil conservation practices like application of fertilizer. The crop diversification parameter implies that as increasing crop specialization reduces farmers’ level of inefficiency. Use of mulching and organic manure significantly increases inefficiency. It was recommended that in the face of increasing land degradation, farmers’ access to effective soil conservation technologies must be increased in order to increase food production efficiency.
  A.S. Oyekale
  Access to land and its fertility status are of paramount importance to enhancing the welfare of rural people in Nigeria. In the Southwestern part, land degradation and persistent growth in human population are major constraints to access to fertile land for agricultural production. This study analyzed the effect of owing fertile land and use of some soil conservation practices on poverty. Data were collected from 303 farmers from 3 states using multi-stage sampling procedure. Results show that about 35.64% of the farmers were poor and the poverty line using the Foster-Greer-Thorbeck (FGT) approach was 1, 445.30. The Probit regression reveals that residence in Oyo State and being married significantly reduced poverty, while household size increased it (p<0.05). Increasing the number of fertile land areas under fallow significantly reduces probability of being poor (p<0.01). Farmers that were using crop rotation, cover crops and organic manure have significantly lower probability of being poor, while those using zero tillage have significantly higher probability of being poor (p<0.05). It was recommended that adoption of improved soil conservation practices will assist farmers to increase farm outputs and reduce their poverty levels, while fertilizers should be made available at affordable prices.
  A.S. Oyekale , M.B. Bolaji and O.W. Olowa
  Cocoa production in Nigeria has been experiencing a declining trend in recent years and many factors has been implicated. One of these factors is the effect of climatic factors hence, this study investigate the effect of climatic variables in cocoa seedling raising, production and processing and also assess the degree of vulnerability and coping strategies adopted by the farmers. In all, rainfall, temperature and sunshine were observed to have been the most important climatic factors that affect cocoa production.
  A.S. Oyekale and C.G. Eluwa
  The difficulties often encountered in out-of-pocket financing of health has compelled introduction of pre-paid health insurance in many developing countries. This study assessed rural households access to health facilities and their willingness to pay for the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) that was implemented by the Nigerian government. Data were collected from 102 rural households from some villages using the multi-stage stratified random sampling. The descriptive and Probit regression methods were used. Results show that general ratings of the conditions of health facilities were very poor and awareness about NHIS is very low. Willingness to participate in the scheme is explained by amount able to pay, frequency of illness, workability and coverage of the scheme (p<0.10). The study concluded that NHIS will improve access of rural households to quality health services, but issues of awareness and proper design to ensure workability and higher coverage should be considered.
  A.S. Oyekale and J.W. Udia
  Deregulation of the Nigeria`s oil sector has resulted into increase in pump prices of petroleum products. Consequently, purchasing power of income has reduced as prices of goods and commodities increased. This study analyzed the changes in expenses incurred by households on energy products, food and transportation and coping strategies used. Data were collected with simple random sampling and analyzed using descriptive statistics and z-test for statistical significance. Results showed that while expenses on kerosene significantly increased (p<0.01) the number of liters of kerosene significantly decreased (p<0.01). Expenses on most carbohydrate foods significantly increased in absolute term (p<0.05) while there were significant reductions in consumption of some protein and vitamin rich foods (p<0.05). Coping strategy of fetching fuel wood was used by 29.63% while 21.30% buy food on credit. It was recommended that to minimize adverse nutritional and environmental effects of fuel price hike, government should assist in boosting economic activities of rural people and ensuring that research into safe utilization of solar energy for cooking is encouraged.
  A.S. Oyekale
  Nigerian land use demand model was estimated using the AIDS model. Results showed that restricted method of estimation gives a better result than the unrestricted considering the significance of hectarage elasticities. The assumption of homogeneity was violated by the unrestricted method of estimation. Both the restricted and unrestricted methods of AIDS model estimation comply with the assumption of adding up, although, both violate the symmetry assumption. Increase in national income will lead to increase in the total hectare demanded in all the land use classes. Substitution or price effect is stronger as a factor influencing demand for all the land use classes. Permanent cropland and arable land show complementary relationship from the cross price elasticity. Arable land and permanent pasture show complementary relationship. Forest and woodland versus permanent crops are substitutes.
  A.S. Oyekale and F.Y. Okunmadewa
  Poverty measurement has recently shifted from the income/expenditure unidimensional approach to multidimensional all inclusive poverty indicators. This study constructs some composite indicators of multidimensional poverty and determines some socio-economic factors influencing them. Data collected in 2002 from 1686 households in Abia State, Nigeria, were used. Fuzzy set was used to compute poverty indices while Tobit regression was carried out. The multidimensional poverty index is 27.76% for the population and rural areas have higher poverty intensity than the urban areas. Poverty simulation shows drastic reduction if almost everybody has access to electricity, good toilet, water and food. Tobit regression shows that households’ male headship, literacy and urbanization significantly reduce multidimensional poverty. It was recommended that increased literacy will reduce poverty with special focus on rural dwellers.
  A.S. Oyekale and T.O. Oyekale
  Despite, past policy interventions and supports, malnutrition remains one of the major problems confronting children in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA). This study analyzed the effect of mothers? educational levels on child malnutrition. Data from the 2000 End-Decade Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey by the United Nations International Children Emergency Funds (UNICEF) for Gambia and Niger were used. Data were analyzed with Foster-Greer-Thorbeck approach and Probit regression. Results show stunting, wasting and underweight head counts are higher in Niger rural and urban areas, while stunting, wasting and underweight head count, depth and severity are higher among children whose mothers had no secondary education for all the countries. The Probit analysis reveals that attainment of secondary education by the mothers, urbanization, presence of pipe water, presence of mother and father at home, polio vaccination, ever breast fed and access to radio and television significantly reduce the probability of stunting, wasting and underweight, while infection with diarrhea, fever and age at first polio vaccine significantly increase it. It was recommended that to reduce malnutrition and achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Gambia and Niger, institutional arrangements for catering for secondary education of girls and ensuring consistency in child health programs must be strengthened, among others.
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