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Articles by A.R. Sofy
Total Records ( 9 ) for A.R. Sofy
  A.A. Megahed , Kh.A. El- Dougdoug , B.A. Othman , S.M. Lashin , M.D. Hassanin , M.A. Ibrahim and A.R. Sofy
  Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus beet Egyptian isolate (CMV-Beet-EG) was detected serologically by DAS-ELISA using polyclonal antibodies in naturally infected sugar beet plants. The virus was isolated by single local lesion method on Chenopodium amaranticolor and then, propagated on sugar beet plants. The virus isolate was confirmed serologically by using dot and tissue printing immunoassay. The coat protein gene of CMV-Beet-EG was successfully amplified using specific primer by RT-PCR and the expected size was 820 bp. Sequence analysis cp gene revealed 97.3 and 96.4% identified similarity with CMV strains sequences published in GeneBank. The highest content of nitrogen bases was for Thymine (T) 164 (26.5%) followed by Cytosine (C) 163 (26.3%), then Adenine (A) 148 (23.9%) and Guanine (G) 144 (23.3%). The ratio of A/T and G/C were 0.902 and 0.883, the percentage of A+T and G+C was found 50.4 and 49.6. The deduced amino acids sequence of CMV-Beet-EG/CP gene was 206 amino acids with a molecular weight of 22.983 kDa and isolelectric point of 9.95. There are total 20 amino acids, the amino acid Serine (S) has the highest content and ferquency of all amino acids 25 and 12.1% while the lowest content and frequency of amino acid was 1 and 0.5% to the each of amino acid Histidine (H) and Trpyptophan (W). The CMV-Beet-EG/CP gene sequence was recorded in GeneBank with Accession No. JX826591.
  Kh.A. El-Dougdoug , S.A. Ghazal , A.A. Mousa , H. Fahmy and A.R. Sofy
  This study was aimed to determined PCR product of the CP gene by electrophoresis. Three Egyptian isolates of Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV-EG), namely ARC, TB and TN were obtained from citrus cvs. Grapefruit, Balady and Navel, respectively. These isolates were differed in some of their external symptoms. The CPsV-EG isolates were detected by biological indexing, giving rise to Oak Leaf Pattern (OLP) on Dweet tangor. The three isolates were differentiated using Double Antibody Sandwich-Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS-ELISA), woody indicator plants, differential hosts, peroxidase isozymes and activity, total RNA content and Reserves Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). The severe isolate (ARC) gave the highest OD value (2.204) in ELISA, followed by the mild isolate (TB) (1.958) and the last latent isolate (TN) (1.669). These isolates differed also in incubation period, intensity of symptoms and response to sensitivity of woody indicator plants and differential hosts. The CPsV-EG isolates showed differences in isozymes fractions, RF value and intensity as compared with healthy plant. Results were confirmed by peroxidase activity where the level of peroxidase activity was considerably higher in ARC leaves than TB and the last TN. The total RNA content in infected leaves gave the highest content in ARC followed by TB isolate while the lowest was recorded in TN isolate. Finally, RT-PCR showed differences between CPsV-EG isolates of PCR products using specific primer (Ps66 and Ps65) where base number of coat protein gene ARC isolate 571 bp; TB isolate 529 bp and TN isolate 546 bp.
  Kh.A. El-Dougdoug , Rehab A. Dawoud , A.A. Rezk and A.R. Sofy
  Direct tissue printing on membranes has been applied on a large scale for an initial detection of CEVd, HSVd and PLMVd in fruit trees in Egypt. CEVd was detected mainly in sweet orange trees and occasionally in grapevine and mango. The principal characteristics of the disease on sweet orange trees. It was incidence with 15.4, 4.5 and 1.5%, respectively. HSVd was detected mainly in sweet orange trees and occasionally in apple, apricot, mandarin, grapevine, mango, peach, pear and plum trees with 25.2, 2.2, 7.2, 10.5, 12.4, 15.7, 65.6, 40.5 and 5.7%, respectively. The principal characteristics of the disease on sweet orange trees. PLMVd was detected mainly in peach and occasionally in apple, apricot, grapevine, mango, pear and plum with 45.0, 5.4, 2.5, 0.5, 13.5, 23.4 and 3.5% incidence. The principal characteristics of the disease on peach trees. The three viroids; CEVd, HSVd and PLMVd were detected frequently in sweet orange and peach occasionally in grapevine, pear, mango, plum and apricot in Egypt.
  K.A. El-Dougdoug , A.A. Rezk , Dawoud A. Rehab and A.R. Sofy
  Chrysanthemum stunt viroid Egyptian isolate (CSVd-EG) was isolated from infected Chrysanthemum plants. It is a member of Pospiviroidae. In order to study the structure of CSVd-EG, it was reverse transcribed in total RNA from infected leaves and then amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using Pospiviroid-CCR specific primers. Purified gel RT-PCR product (~199) was cloned into the PCR® II-TOPO® vector then it was sequenced. Partial sequence 199 bp of CSVd-EG is almost identical to that of the prototype 199 bp Canada and USA isolates of CSVd with 96% homology. The sequence of CSVd-EG can be arranged into viroid specific rod like structure. CSVd-EG differ from the prototype isolates Canada and USA at sites occur in regions corresponding to the conserved, variable and right terminal domains which are believed to control viroid pathogencity. Finally, this constitutes the first isolation and identification of CSVd from diseased Chrysanthemum plants in Egypt.
  A.R. Sofy , A.A. Mousa , A.M. Soliman and Kh.A. El- Dougdoug
  Gummy bark disease is a disorder of sweet orange on sour orange rootstock in Egypt. There is an importance for hot-growing temperatures to symptom development of citrus viroids. The geographical distribution of the gummy bark disease in some world countries depend on high temperatures for viroid-symptom expression. So, correlation between climatic factors and gummy bark disease through GIS is studied. We designed a satellite map for the gummy bark disease distribution all over the world using the previous registered results. Superimposed maps of BIOCLIM annual Min-temperature, Max-Temperature and the points distribution, indicated that gummy bark disease naturally occurs in the low temperature zones range from 8-18°C at winter and from 27-38°C at summer season where the altitude ranged from -351 to 1320 m. A novel method called maximum entropy distribution modeling was used for predicting potential suitable habitat for gummy bark disease in Egypt using occurrence records. The Maxent model’s internal jackknife test of variable importance showed that altitude and mean temperature of driest quarter are the most important predictors of citrus gummy bark disease-habitat distribution.
  A.R. Sofy , A.M. Soliman , A.A. Mousa and Kh.A. El-Dougdoug
  This study reports the characterization of Hop stunt viroid which has been isolated previously in Egypt from sweet orange infected with gummy bark disease namely citrus viroid II. The native structure of mature, circular forms of the gummy bark agent was detected by gel electrophoresis. The expected size of amplified cDNA by RT-PCR was approximately 300 bp. A phylogenetic tree of the Egyptian citrus gummy bark agent (Accession no. FJ984562) revealed 100, 99.7 and 97.8% a moderate degree of similarity to CVd-IIb (USA), CCaVd (Spain) and CCaVd (Egypt), respectively. The minimum free energy of a secondary structure for HSVd-EG-RNA was determined using its primary sequence at 37°C. The sequence appeared to fold into a rod-like structure at -122.1 kcal moL-1 while CCaVd-EG at -120.5 kcal moL-1. The five domains of the rod-like structure were determined. The sequence variations between Egyptian citrus gummy bark isolate and Egyptian citrus cachexia isolate in the pathogenic domain (P) tend to influence the pathogenicity of the HSVd-EG. Finally, the genetic diversity and evaluation of entropy power for the Egyptian citrus gummy bark agent and HSVd-citrus populations registered in GenBank, were viewed against the phylogenetic background of known CVd-II variants including the non-cachexia (CVd-IIa) and the causal agents of severe (CVd-IIb, CVd-IIc), more moderate (Ca903) and mild (Ca909).
  A.A. Megahed , Kh. A. El- Dougdoug , B.A. Othman , S.M. Lashin , M.A. Ibrahim and A.R. Sofy
  Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus satellite strain Egyption isolate (st-CMV-EG) was detected using polyclonal antibodies by DAS-ELISA form naturally infected cucumber leaves collected from protected agriculture. The samples which give positive reaction were used to virus isolation. st-CMV-EG isolate has a wide host-range belonging to 6 families. The virus isolate was inactivated at 70°C, it was infected at dilution 10-4 and longevity was 4 days at room temperature. Amorphous and crystalline inclusion bodies were detected in hair cells of epidermal strips of CMV-inoculated cucumber leaves. The U.V absorption ratio, A260/A280 and Amax./Amin. were 1.204 and 1.101, respectively, as well as virus yield was 1.43 mg/100 g fresh leaves in purified virus preparation. Electron micrograph of the purified virus isolate showed spherical particles (28 nm.). The virus isolate was detected serologically by using dot blot immunoassay. CMV-RNA was successfully detected in infected cucumber leaves using specific primer of cp gene by RT-PCR and the expected size was about 582 bp. Sequence analysis of CMV-cp gene of cucumber Egyption isolate was indicated 38% similarity to that of AB024493 and D00542.
  K.A. El-Dougdoug , A.R. Sofy , G.A. Hameed and R.A. Dawood
  Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was isolated from naturally infected Banana, Geranium and Gladiolus and exhibited different external symptoms. The three CMV isolates were transmitted by sap inoculation with 6, 5 and 5 out of 10 inoculated N. glutinosa plants as well as by aphids with 6, 5 and 4 out of 10 inoculated Cucumber plants, respectively. These isolates exhibited different morphological characters of single local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and had different sap stability (TIP, DEP and LIV) in vitro. The differential host reactions were differed among these isolates in incubation period and external symptoms; the amplified cp-gene RNA of confirm the diversity of CMV isolates. It was proved that CMV could involve variation of infection due to one more than CMV strains. It has been declared that the complementary role of biological diagnosis addition, in addition to molecular diagnosis to have a complete and clear image for viral etiology.
  A.A. Megahed , Kh. A. El-Dougdoug , B.A. Othman , S.M. Lashin , M.A. Ibrahim and A.R. Sofy
  The possibility of making use of the phenome non of Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) to control viruses achieved by the soaking treatment of tomato seeds cv. Castl Rock with three growth forms to Bacillus circulans, Pseudomonas fluorescens 2 and Trichoderma harzianum against Tomato mosaic tobamovirus (ToMV) infection. All the application forms of beneficial biotic inducers were reduced the mean number of ToMV local lesions on Datura metel. P. fluorescens 2 was found to be the best treatment in three forms on reduction of local lesion number 42.2, 32.7 and 38.1 of microbial liquid culture, microbial cells or spores and microbial culture filtrate forms, respectively, while the highest mean numbers of local lesions were 51.5, 61.7 and 73.5 of microbial liquid culture, m icrobial cells or spores and microbial culture filtrate, respectively for T. harzianum. The microbial culture filtrate form was more effective than other microbial forms to reduce mean number of ToMV local lesions to B. circulans, P. fluorescens 2 and T. harzianum isolates, 40.7, 32.1 and 51.5, respectively. The individual microbial isolates on all three microbial forms able to vary ToMV local lesions similarity (homologous or heterologous) and morphology (size center and surrounded with halo or without halo) compared with TMV mother strain.
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