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Articles by A.R. Khan
Total Records ( 9 ) for A.R. Khan
  A.A. Ramadan , M. Al-Sudairawi , S. Alhajraf and A.R. Khan
  In Kuwait, most of the power stations use fuel oil as the prime source of energy. The sulphur content (S%) of the fuel used as well as other factors have a direct impact on the ground level concentration of sulphur dioxide (SO2) released by power stations into the atmosphere. The SO2 ground level concentration has to meet the environmental standards set by Kuwait Environment Public Authority (KEPA). In this communication we present results obtained using the Industrial Sources Complex Short Term (ISCST3) model to calculate the SO2 concentration resulting from existing power stations in Kuwait assuming zero background SO2 concentration and entire reliance on Heavy Fuel Oil. 1, 2, 3 and 4S% scenarios were simulated for three emission cycle cases. The computed annual SO2 concentrations were always less than KEPA standards for all scenarios. The daily SO2 concentrations were within KEPA standards for 1S% but violated KEPA standards for higher S%. In general, the concentrations obtained from the combined hourly and seasonal cycle were the lowest and those obtained from the no cycle case were the highest. The comparison between the results of the three cycles revealed that the violation times cannot be solely attributed to the increase in emissions and the meteorological conditions have to be taken into consideration.
  S. M. Al-Salem , A.A. Al-Haddad and A.R. Khan
  Four major sources of air pollution were identified and modeled using Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) around a residential area. The sources were identified as MAA refinery, downtown area, upstream facilities and main highway road. The sources were analyzed using a series of concentration roses (unfiltered and filtered) executed from the data collected. Data collected included primary and secondary pollutants levels as well as major metrological parameters. The model gave a 91% and 89% match at the receptor point for the identified sources in two different durations. Metrological conditions and chemical fingerprints were adapted into the model to minimize the error and mismatch. Seasonal variation analysis was established by choosing the two months that represent the seasonal distribution in the year. Local and international rules and regulations were cross referenced in order to evaluate the air quality of the area under investigation. A number of violations in terms of ambient levels of primary and secondary pollutants were found and reported in this study.
  Khaireyah Kh. AL-Hamad , V. Nassehi and A.R. Khan
  Air pollution and its effects on the ecosystem has been a source of concern for many environmental pollution organizations in the world. In particular climatologists who are not directly involved in petroleum industry sometimes express concerns about the environmental impacts of gas emissions from flaring at well heads. For environmental and resource conservation reasons, flaring should always be minimized as much as practicable and consistent with safety considerations. However, any level of flaring has a local environmental impact, as well as producing emissions which have the potential to contribute to the global warming. In the present research the Industrial Source Complex (ISCST3) Dispersion Model is used to calculate the ground level concentrations of two selected primary pollutants (i.e. methane and non-methane hydrocarbons) emitted due to flaring in all of Kuwait Oilfields. In additional, the performance of the ISCST3 model is assessed, by comparing the model prediction with the observed concentration of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons obtained from the monitoring sites. The described model evaluation is based on the comparison of 50 highest daily measured and predicted concentrations of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons. The overall conclusion of this comparison is that the model predictions are in good agreement with the observed data (accuracy range of 60-95%) from the monitoring stations maintained by the Kuwait Environmental Public Authority (EPA). A specific important conclusion of this study is that, there is a need for a proper emission inventory strategy for Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) as means of monitoring and minimizing the impact of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons released because of flaring activities.
  Khaireyah Kh. AL-Hamad , V. Nassehi and A.R. Khan
  Air pollution and its effects on the ecosystem has been a source of concern for many environmental pollution organizations in the world. In particular climatologists who are not directly involved in petroleum industry sometimes express concerns about the environmental impacts of gaseous emissions from flaring at various despised points. For environmental and resource conservation reasons, flaring should always be minimized as much as practicable and be consistent with safety considerations. However, any level of flaring has a local environmental impact, as well as producing emissions which have the potential to contribute to the global warming. In this study the Industrial Source Complex (ISCST3) Dispersion Model is used to calculate the ground level concentrations of two selected primary pollutants (i.e. methane and non-methane hydrocarbons) emitted from flaring activities at oil production facilities at North Kuwait. Model validation is based on the comparison of the 50 highest daily measured values and their respective predicted concentrations of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons. At discrete receptors, it is noticed that the predicted values are in good agreement with the observed data (accuracy range of 60-90%) from the monitoring stations maintained by the Kuwait Environmental Public Authority (EPA). The predicted results are based on emission inventories. Therefore, accurate emission inventory strategy for Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) as means of monitoring and minimizing the impact of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons emissions is of prime importance.
  Bader N. Al-Azmi , V. Nassehi and A.R. Khan
  In Kuwait, two main power stations, one comprising of seven-300MW steam generators at Doha and other with eight-300MW steam generators at Subyia cover the major power requirement of Kuwait city. These stations used different types of fuel oil as the prime source of energy that has different sulpher contents (S%). Comprehensive emission inventories for year the 2001 were used to execute Source Complex model for Short-term Dispersion (ISCST4.5) to predict ambient ground level concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) at selected receptors. A yearlong meteorological data were used in conjunction with the dispersion model to compute SO2 and NOx levels in and around the power stations. For validation of the model, computed results were compared with the measured daily average values at a fixed Kuwait EPA air quality monitoring station located at the roof of polyclinic in Rabia residential area. Contributions of each power station to the highest predicted values were assessed. Significance of the fifty highest hourly, daily and annual ground level concentration values under existing meteorological conditions was analyzed. The results for year 2001 revealed that daily and annual mean predicted SO2 concentrations had exceedance about 5.7% and 0.16% respectively of the total area under investigation. Based on these results, mitigation strategies would be proposed to abate high pollution levels caused by these power stations.
  H.O. Al Jeran and A.R. Khan
  Troposphere ozone layer acts as a shield against all ultraviolet radiation approaching the planet Earth through absorption. It was noticed in mid 80s that ozone layer has thinned on the poles of the planet due to release of man-made substances commonly known as Ozone Depleting Substances, (ODS) into its atmosphere. The consequences of this change are adverse as the harmful radiations reach to the surface of the earth, strongly influencing the crops yield and vegetation. These radiations are major cause of skin cancer that has long exposure to Ultra Violet (UV) radiation. United States environmental protection agency and European community have imposed strict regulations to curb the emission of ODS and phase out schedules for the manufacture and use of ODS that was specified by Montreal protocol in 1987. Problem statement: This research deled with data analysis of ozone layer thickness obtained from Abu-Dhabi station and detailed measurement of air pollution levels in Kuwait. Approach: The ozone layer thickness in stratosphere had been correlated with the measured pollution levels in the State of Kuwait. The influence of import of ozone depletion substances for the last decade had been evaluated. Other factor that strongly affects the ozone layer thickness in stratosphere is local pollution levels of primary pollutants such as total hydrocarbon compounds and nitrogen oxides. Results: The dependency of ozone layer thickness on ambient pollutant levels presented in detail reflecting negative relation of both non-methane hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide concentrations in ambient air. Conclusion: Ozone layer thickness in stratosphere had been measured for five years (1999-2004) reflecting minimum thickness in the month of December and maximum in the month of June. The ozone thickness related to the ground level concentration of non-methane hydrocarbon and can be used as an indicator of the health of ozone layer thickness in the stratosphere.
  Yaseen, M. , A. Aziz , M.A Gill , R.H.N. Khan , M. Aslam and A.R. Khan
  Ten rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes were evaluated for growth and utilization efficiency of phosphorus (P), in hydroponics using modified Yoshida solution containing three levels of phosphorus viz. P1 (10 mg L–1), P2 (5 mg L–1) and P3 (2.5 mg L–1). Substantial differences were observed among varieties for accumulation of shoot dry weight (SDW), root dry weight (RDW), root: shoot ratio (RSR) as well as for phosphorus utilization efficiency (PUE). Overall IR-8 and Basmati-370 out yielded all other genotypes in shoot dry weight. In Basmati-370 also produced the highest RDW, while KS-282 was least RDW producer. Maximum RSR was exhibited by C-49-1-80 followed by EF-76-1, DM-15-13-1 and Basmati-370. Maximum PUE was exhibited by Basmati-Pak followed by Kernel. P3 level showed highest value of PUE. Genotypes Basmati-Pak, Basmati-370 and Kernel showed maximum PUE as compared to all other genotypes and could be regarded as P-efficient.
  Yaseen, M. , R.H.N. Khan , M.A. Gill , A. Aziz , M. Aslam and A.R. Khan
  Genetic variability among eight rice cultivars was determined by conducting a solution culture experiment using modified Yoshida solution. Three Zn levels were developed by the addition of no DTPA (Zn1), 25 μ M DTPA (Zn2) and 50 μ M DTPA (Zn3) to 0.035 mg L–1 Zn. Substantial differences were observed among genotypes for accumulation of shoot dry weight (SDW), root dry weight (ROW), root: shoot ratio (RSR) as well as for zinc utilization efficiency (ZnUE). Overall Kernel genotype produced maximum SDW at all the three levels of Zn. In case of RDW genotypes Kernel, Kashmir and Basmati-370 produced maximum RDW, while DM-25 was least RDW producer. Highest RSR was exhibited by Kashmir followed by Kernel and Basmati-370. Genotypes Kernel, Basmati-370 and KS-282 showed maximum ZnUE compared to all other genotypes and could be regarded as Zn-efficient.
  W. Islam and A.R. Khan
  The use of chemical pesticides against storage pests by farmers in developing countries like Bangladesh is inadequately docummented. The holistic view of pest control technology is required to evaluate its impact on net social welfare, the simultaneous determination of optimal storage operations, consumption and production over time and optimal pest management. To make these variables operational the collaboration of biologists (especially pest management expert), economists, systems analysts, extension workers and social scientists are very much to be solicited. It is apparent that our basic understanding of bruchid pests is still far from being adequate. Therefore, intensive studies of their, biology, ecology and effects on foodstuffs are needed to be vigorously persued. Chemical pesticides are expected to play a major role in pest management programmes. However, the development of alternative pest management strategies involving non-chemical methods should vigorously pursued. There is no single answer to pest problems. The development of an integrated pest management system incorporating the principles, methods and techniques advanced by various disciplines into a coherent and comprehensive programme seems to be the answer.
 
 
 
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