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Articles by A.R. Alimon
Total Records ( 21 ) for A.R. Alimon
  K.H. Swe , A.R. Alimon and M. Ramin
  Problem statement: Asexual sporulation is a common reproductive mode for a diverse group of fungi and the ultimate limiting factor in fungal biomass production. Approach: Delaying sporulation may increase the biomass in terms of mycelial production and the same time increase production of enzymes. Results: In order to delay the sporulation different levels of ammonium sulphate (10, 12 and 14%) were added in culture media as nitrogen source for fungus. It was observed that addition of 14% ammonium sulphate was the best concentration to add in culture during Solid State Fermentation (SSF) of substrate (Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) + Rice Bran) by Aspergillus niger to delay sporulation. Adding ammonium sulphate also increased the digestibility of fiber in the Fermented Substrate (FS). In addition very low sporulation was observed even after 72 h of fermentation. The development of spore forming was inhibited or delayed when ammonium sulphate was added compared to the control. Similarly, both NDF and ADF content of FS were decreased in the treatment groups. The higher the ammonium sulphate added to the medium, the lower the NDF and ADF contents of FS although the differences of NDF content were not significant after 3 days or 4 days fermentation. . Conclusion/Recommendations: It was concluded that adding 14% ammonium sulphate significantly delayed sporulation and increased fungal biomass production in a solid state fermentation system.
  E. Erwan , A.R. Alimon , A.Q. Sazili , H. Yaakub and M. Hilmi
  Problem statement: Supplementation of broiler diets with cristalline amino acids (i.e. lysine, ethionine and threonine) may support equal broiler growth and improve overall amino acids balance and enable a reduction in CP level of diets. Approach: A trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental L-leucine in diets containing recommended levels and low crude protein (20 and 18%, respectively) with constant metabolizable energy (3200 kcal kg-1) for broilers from 21-42 day of age. Six experimental diets were formulated with three levels of supplemental L-leucine, 0, 0.5 and 0.67% and two levels of crude protein. A total of 180 1 day-old Cobb broiler chickens were randomly divided into 36 experimental pens, 5 chickens in each pen, with each diet replicated 6 times. The dietary treatments were offered from 21-42 days of age. Feed intake, body weight gain and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) were measured on a weekly basis. At the end of the feeding trial the birds were slaughtered and carcass analyses conducted. Results: Feed intake, weight gain and FCR were not affected by increasing levels of L-leucine supplementation. Weight gain was significantly reduced (p<0.05), whereas feed intake and FCR were not significantly affected with decreasing dietary crude protein. A positive response in breast meat yield was achieved by the addition of L-leucine to levels up to 0.5% in the diet but a significant decrease was noted when the level reached 0.67% in diet. Supplementation of L-leucine significantly (p<0.05) decreased the relative weights of the liver and gizzard. However, the addition of L-leucine significantly reduced carcass weights when L-leucine was added at 0.67%. Lowering the dietary protein level also significantly reduced breast yield and carcass weight (p<0.05). However, abdominal fat, gizzard, liver and heart were not affected by protein level. Conclusion/Recommendations: It can be concluded that supplementation of L-leucine at levels up to 0.67% of the diet did not affect performance but deleteratious the carcass weight.
  E Erwan , A.R. Alimon , A.Q. Sazili and H. Yaakub
  The experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of excess leucine, in broiler diets containing varying levels of energy. In a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement, the effects of leucine levels and dietary energy on performance and carcass characteristics of Cobb broiler chickens from 3 to 6 weeks of age were tested. Dietary treatments consisted of two levels of leucine i.e. 0 and 0.5% with two of metabolizable energy (ME) i.e. 3200 and 3000 kcal/kg, respectively. Reducing dietary energy decreased weight gain up to 7.4% (P<0.05). Decreasing dietary energy had no significant effect on feed consumption and feed to gain ratio and carcass characteristics. Increasing dietary leucine had no significant effect on feed consumption, weight gain and feed to gain ratio and carcass characteristics, but significantly increased carcass weight up to 9% (P<0.05). Dietary treatments had no significantly effect on mortality. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential impact of excess leucine in diets with reduced levels of crude protein.
  Husmaini , M.H. Abbas , E. Purwati , A. Yuniza and A.R. Alimon
  The main objective of this research is to investigate the potential of LABs isolated from processing byproduct of the VCO in in vitro conditions for use as probiotics in poultry. Forty eight LABs were isolated and four of them have been selected for further study i.e. Lh1, Lh2, Lh3 and Lh4. A series of tests carried out by studying the ability of bacteria to survive at 37 and 42oC, tolerance of LAB at pH 2, 0, 5, 7 and 7, 0 and tolerance to gastric juice as well as sensitivity to several antibiotics commonly was given to poultry. The survival of LABs was evaluated after 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 and 300 min of incubation. The sensitivity test to antibiotics was performed by Muller Hinton′s agar. All the bacteria showed tolerance and ability to grow at pH 5 and 7, but only Lh4 enabled to tolerate at pH 2. All of LAB can grow at gastric juice stimulated. Lh4 was not sensitive to all antibiotics (clear zones: 0.33 mm) but the other LABs were sensitive (clear zones: 5-12 mm). The conclusion of this research is the ability of LABs to grow in in vitro conditions varies. The Lh4 has demonstrated its ability to grow and the best survival with the OD (λ = 580) is 1.99 after 300 min of incubation at pH 2 and has shown the most resistant to all antibiotics tested with a wide clear zone 0.33 mm, hence potentially be used for probiotic in poultry.
  M. Mohajer , A.R. Alimon , H.B. Yaakub , A. Niasari- Naslaji and A. Toghdory
  About 184 Zel ewes, 3-5 years of age and a body weight of between 40 and 45 kg were used in the trial. Ewes were randomly allocated to 4 treatments groups based on BW and age (46 ewes/group). All of the ewes were fed in two nutritional groups including low (2 mcal kg-1) and high (2.3 mcal kg-1) metabolizeble energy diet. Ewes received experimental diet until 28th day of experiment. The estrous cycles of ewes were synchronized using SIDR and 2 levels of PMSG (300 and 500 IU). Treatments include: 1-High energy and 300 IU PMSG (H300), 2-High energy and 500 IU PMSG (H500), 3-Low energy and 300 IU PMSG (L300) and 4-Low energy and 500 IU PMSG (L300). Jugular blood samples were collected from ewes using vacutainers at 10 h in first day of experiment, CIDR insert day, CIDR removal day before mating and 120 h after mating. Bloods samples centrifuged at 3000x g for 15 min then serum immediately separated and kept frozen at -20°C until analysis for insulin, FSH and progesterone. Repeated measurements used for data analysis. The result showed that there were no any significant difference between two groups weight before start the experiment (p>0.05). During the experiment high level of energy increased the body weight than low level group (p<0.05). Energy had no significant effect on blood FSH and progesterone concentration (p>0.05) but high level of energy decreased the insulin concentration significantly (p<0.05). In this study PMSG had no any significant effect on blood metabolites such as FSH, Insulin and progesterone.
  M. Karami , A.R. Alimon , A.Q. Sazili and Y.M. Goh
  This study investigated the effect of different antioxidants of dietary supplementation with Andrographis paniculata, turmeric and α-tocopherol on lipid and color stability of Infraspinatous (IS) kacang crossbred goat kids muscle. Total 4 treatments of 8 animals each were randomly selected, consisting of control (CN), 400 mg kg-1 Vitamin E (VE), 0.5% kg-1 DMI Turmeric (TU) and 0.5% kg-1 DMI Andrographis paniculata (AP). After 100 days feeding period, goats were slaughtered and infraspinatous muscle was sampled. The muscle was vacuum-packaged and displayed for 0, 7 and 14 days in a chiller at 3-4°C. Percent of drip loss in the IS muscle were not significantly different among of dietary supplementation antioxidants (VE, TU and AP) with CN. Period of display did not affect (p>0.05) drip loss in IS muscle. Percent of cooking loss in the IS muscle were different among of dietary supplementation antioxidants (VE, TU and AP) and AP supplemented diet only decreased significantly (p<0.05) cooking loss with CN treatment. Increasing the aging time had not significant effects on percent cooking loss in the IS muscle. Warner-bratzler shear force was not affected by dietary supplementation antioxidants in IS muscle. However, increasing the aging time significantly (p<0.05) decreased Warner-bratzler shear force value or improved tenderness of IS muscle in kacang male goat kids. Supplementation of dietary antioxidant turmeric improved the IS muscle L* (lightness), a* value (redness), b* (yellowness) values, Chroma, Hue angle values and E enhanced significantly (p<0.05). Dietary antioxidants supplementation decreased TBARS value however, VE significantly (p<0.05) decreased lipid oxidation in IS muscle of kacang crossbred goat kid. TBARS value increased during the first seven days store in refrigerator but not significant (p>0.05). TBARS value high significantly increased in aging time at 14 days (p<0.01). Dietary antioxidants supplementation and sampling periods of blood plasma decreased (p<0.05). TBARS value of blood plasma of goats. In conclusion, feeding herbal antioxidants supplementation of male goat kids resulted in a general improvement of blood plasma and IS muscle oxidative stability as compared to feeding a control diet. Meat color deterioration, measured as changes of color descriptors aging (over) time was less pronounced in IS muscle from animals fed herbs (TU and AP) and VE diets than in IS muscle from CN fed goats.
  M. Karami , A.R. Alimon , A.Q. Sazili and Y.M. Goh
  This study investigated the effect of different antioxidants of dietary supplementation with Andrographis paniculata, turmeric and α-tocopherol on lipid and color stability of Infraspinatous (IS) kacang crossbred goat kids muscle. Four treatments of eight animals each were randomly selected consisting of Control (CN), 400 mg kg-1 Vitamin E (VE), 0.5% kg-1 DMI Turmeric (TU) and 0.5% kg-1 DMI Andrographis paniculata (AP). After 100 days feeding period, goats were slaughtered and infraspinatous muscle was sampled. The muscle was vacuum-packaged and displayed for 0, 7 and 14 days in a chiller at 3-4°C. Percent of drip loss in the IS muscle were not significantly different among of dietary supplementation antioxidants (VE, TU and AP) with CN. Period of display did not affect (p>0.05) drip loss in IS muscle. Percent of cooking loss in the IS muscle were different among of dietary supplementation antioxidants (VE, TU and AP) and AP supplemented diet only decreased significantly (p<0.05) cooking loss with CN treatment. Increasing the aging time had not significant effects on percent cooking loss in the IS muscle. Warner-Bratzler shear force was not affected by dietary supplementation antioxidants in IS muscle. However, Increasing the aging time significantly (p<0.05) decreased Warner-Bratzler shear force value or improved tenderness of IS muscle in kacang male goat kids. Supplementation of dietary antioxidant turmeric improved the IS muscle L* (lightness), a* value (redness), b* (yellowness) values, Chroma, Hue angle values and E enhanced significantly (p<0.05). Dietary antioxidants supplementation decreased TBARS value however, VE significantly (p<0.05) decreased lipid oxidation in IS muscle of kacang crossbred goat kid. TBARS value increased during the first 7 days store in refrigerator but not significant (p>0.05). TBARS value high significantly increased in aging time at 14 days (p<0.01). Dietary antioxidants supplementation and sampling periods of blood plasma decreased (p<0.05) TBARS value of blood plasma of goats. In conclusion, feeding herbal antioxidants supplementation of male goat kids resulted in a general improvement of blood plasma and IS muscle oxidative stability as compared to feeding a control diet. Meat color deterioration, measured as changes of color descriptors aging (over) time was less pronounced in IS muscle from animals fed herbs (TU and AP) and VE diets than in IS muscle from CN-fed goats.
  S. Navid , M. Hilmi , A.R. Alimon , A.Q. Sazili and A. Sheikhlar
  Eighty spent chickens were employed in this study to assay the effect of combination of vitamin D3 and papaya leaf on antioxidant activity of meat in spent layer hens. Diets were a corn-soybean meal based diet for finisher layer with and without vitamin D3 which was supplemented with different levels of 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% for papaya leaf meal. Experiment lasted for 21 days. At day 0, 7, 14 and 21, the birds were scarified and breast muscle was obtained to determine antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity was measured using 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Result obtained from this study demonstrated that antioxidant activity of meat showed remarkable improvement between dietary treatments fed mix of vitamin D3 and papaya leaf and control group. In conclusion, vitamin D3 and papaya leaf when combined indicated an improvement in antioxidant activity of the spent meat.
  R. Suriya , I. Zulkifli and A.R. Alimon
  This study was undertaken to investigate the growth performances of fast growing birds fed with garlic, cinnamon and tumeric powder. Since, uses of antibiotics as growth promoter have been banned by the European Union, herbs or products containing plant extracts are using as alternative feed supplements in animal production. Garlic (Allium sativum), turmeric (Curcuma Longa) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) have been widely used as medicinal and growth promoter purposes in animals. However, the information of the effect of these herbs on broiler production, especially under tropical environmental condition is still inadequate. About 240 days old chicks were randomly allocated to 10 treatment groups consisting of 3 replications of 8 chicks in each pen. The experimental groups were formulated consisting of non-supplemented (control) and supplemented diets. The groups were assigned to receive treatment diet as follows; garlic, turmeric and cinnamon were incorporated at three concentrations; 0.25, 0.5 and 1% into the basal diet (mash form). The overall body weight gain of broiler chickens fed with 0.25% turmeric, 0.5% garlic and 0.5% cinnamon found to be significant different compared with the control group. From the result of present study, it could be suggested that the use of powdered garlic (Allium sativum) as feed additive at level of 0.5% as it proved be significantly different in body weight gain and FCR compared with the control group.
  A. Sheikhlar , A.R. Alimon , H.M. Daud and C.R. Saad
  Methanol extract of Morus alba Foliage (MFE) was studied to evaluate its effect on hematological parameters and liver histology of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The trial consisted of five diets preparation, i.e., control diet (diet 1) and four tested diets supplemented, respectively with 2 g MFE kg-1 (MFE-2), 5 g MFE kg-1 (MFE -5), 7 g MFE kg-1 (MFE -7) and 9 g MFE kg-1 (MFE -9) of Dry Matter (DM) diet. Results showed fish fed with MFE-5 and MFE-7 diets had (p<0.05) the highest RBC counts, Hb content, albumin and total protein levels among other dietary groups while MFE-9 showed the poorest RBC, albumin and total protein. Histological study indicated that fish received MFE-9 diet showed minor degenerative changes in the liver. In conclusion, methanol extract of Morus alba at 7 g kg-1 of diet has no adverse impact on hematology and liver’s histology in African catfish.
  T.K. Leo , D.E. Leslie , S.S. Loo , M. Ebrahimi , Z.A. Aghwan , J.M. Panandam , A.R. Alimon , S.A. Karsani and A.Q. Sazili
  The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in growth performance and carcass characteristics of Bali cattle subjected to oil palm integration and two different feedlot finishing systems (basal vs. high energy). Eighteen, 24-30 months old male Bali cattle were involved in this study. The animals were randomly allotted into 3 feeding groups: Integration (INT), (n = 6 animals), Feedlot A (FA) with basal energy (n = 6 animals) and Feedlot B (FB) with high energy (n = 6 animals). The animals assigned to the integration system were allowed to graze on the native forages and legumes available under the oil palm plantation. The basal energy diet consisted of 5 kg Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) pellets + ad libitum corn stover and the high energy diet which consisted of 5 kg Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) pellets + ad libitum corn stover + 400 g calcium soap of palm oil fatty acids (Megalac®, Volac International Limited, UK) were fed to the animals in FA and FB, respectively. The feeding trial was conducted for 120 consecutive days excluding 3 weeks of adaptation period. The present data suggest that some of the growth parameters and carcass traits in Bali cattle can be enhanced through the feedlot finishing system.
  M. Afdal , Azhar Kasim , A.R. Alimon and N. Abdullah
  The aim of this study was to recognize the palatability of Ground Cinnamon (GS) treated Oil Palm Decanter Meal (OPDM) on goats. Goats were placed in an individual cage attached with 3 separated adjustable feed containers. It was spent for adaptation period of 7 days to familiarize animal with the experimental feed. Then all animals were offered with three alternatives feed namely RS as a standard feed, untreated OPDM (UDM) and GS treated OPDM (GDM) over a 15 days experimental period. The chemical composition including ash, Organic Matter (OM), Crude Protein (CP), Ether Extract (EE), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) and Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) of both GDM and UDM was not significantly different (p>0.05) among experimental feed. Intakes on day 1 and average on day 5, 10 and 15 were significantly different (p<0.05) among four different experimental feeds. After removing of RS on day 5, intake of GDM significantly (p<0.05) increased and be the highest in comparison with UDM and NG. In conclusion, the chemical composition of GDM was not different from that of UDM therefore GDM could be used as animal feed. GDM could be accepted as edible feed for goat as it was higher intake of than that of UDM.
  D.E. Leslie , T.K. Leo , S.S. Loo , Z.A. Aghwan , A.R. Alimon , J.M. Panandam , S.A. Karsani and A.Q. Sazili
  The study was carried out in an attempt to assess meat quality of Bali cattle finished in 3 different systems. Twenty one bulls were selected from an existing herd under an oil palm plantation and randomly assigned to 120 days of feeding in; Integration-INT (n = 8), basal energy Feedlot-F (n = 6) and high energy Feedlot-FB (n = 7) System. All animals were humanely slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. Samples of Longissimus Dorsi (LD), Supra Spinatus (SS) and Semi Membranosus (SM) muscles were collected and prepared accordingly for the determinations of pH, cooking loss, shear force and color (L* and a*) values. The animals finished on Integration (INT) demonstrated higher L* values (p<0.05) in SS muscle and lower L* values (p<0.05) in both LD and SM muscles. Lower cooking losses (p<0.05) were observed in LD and SM muscles from the INT group. However, there was no difference in pH, a* (redness) and shear force values among the treatments and these were consistently shown in all three muscles. The results from this study demonstrate the influence of finishing system on Bali cattle meat quality.
  Z.A. Aghwan , A.Q. Sazili , A.R. Alimon , Y.M. Goh and M.A. Hilmi
  The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of supplementing inorganic Selenium (Se), Iodine (I) and combination of both on their concentrations in serum, skeletal muscle and organs of 24 local Kacang crossbred meat goats. Four dietary treatments of six goats each were randomly allotted to basal diet without supplementation (background only) as control (T1), basal diet + 0.6 mg Se kg-1 DM (T2), basal diet + 0.6 mg I kg-1 DM (T3) or basal diet with combination of 0.6 mg Se + 0.6 mg I kg-1 DM (T4) for 100 consecutive days. Serum samples were collected at days 0, 30, 60 and 95 for the determination of Se and I concentrations. Semitendinosus (ST) muscle, liver and kidney were also collected, vacuum packaged and stored frozen until assayed for the Se and I levels. The levels of I and Se in the serum of supplemented groups (T2, T3 and T4) were significantly higher compared to control (T1). In comparison with the control animals (T1) I and Se concentrations in the ST muscle, kidney and liver were also higher (p<0.05) in the supplemented groups. The results demonstrated the potential of Se and I dietary supplementation employed in this study to increase the concentrations of both elements in the serum, muscle, liver and kidney of goats.
  A. Sheikhlar , A.R. Alimon , H.M. Daud , C.R. Saad and H. Shanagi
  In the present study, the effect of aqueous and methanol extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum seed (fenugreek), Citrus limon peel (lemon) and Morus alba foliage (mulberry) against two Gram- negative bacteria, Aeromonas hydrophila and Escherichia coli and two Gram-positive bacteria, Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated and the phytochemical compounds of the tested herbal extracts were determined. The results indicated that the aqueous extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum seed and Citrus limon peel revealed weak antibacterial activity against the bacteria. The methanol extracts of all herbs exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogens. Among the entire methanol extracts, the Morus alba had the strongest activities. Aeromonas hydrophila was the most sensitive microorganism tested. The phytochemical screening of the plants showed the presence of secondary metabolites such as phenols, volatile oils, tannins, saponins, steroids, flavonoid, terpenoids and alkaloids.
  A. Sheikhlar , A.R. Alimon , H. Daud , C.R. Saad and E. Ramezani- Fard
  Methanol extract of Euphorbia hirta was tested in in vivo experiment to investigate the effect on hematological and biochemical indices and histological changes of liver in the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The plant methanol extract was included in the feed and administered to the fish. The experiment was conducted for eight weeks and with five diets including control (E. hirta-0), 2 (E. hirta-2), 5(E. hirta-5), 7(E. hirta-7) and 9(E. hirta-9) g E. hirta kg-1 of dry matter diet. Fish fed the E. hirta-9 diet had lowest (p<0.05) RBC and TP compared with the other dietary groups. Histological analyses revealed this group (E. hirta-9) had histopathologic alterations in the liver. Results of this study indicated that methanol extract of E.hirta by 7 g kg-1 can be safely used to improve hematological indices of African catfish without any adverse effect on the liver.
  M. Ramin , A.R. Alimon , J.M. Panandam , K. Sijam , A. Javanmard and N. Abdullah
  The digestion and Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA) production from rice straw and oil palm fronds by cellulolytic bacteria isolated from the termite Coptotermes curvignathus were investigated. The bacteria were Acinetobacter strain Raminalimon, Enterobacter aerogenes strain Razmin C, Enterobacter cloacae strain Razmin B, Bacillus cereus strain Razmin A and Chryseobacterium kwangyangense strain Cb. Acinetobacter strain Raminalimon is an aerobic bacterium, while the other species are facultative anaerobes. There were significant differences (p<0.05) among the bacteria for Dry Matter (DM) lost and acetic acid production from rice straw and Acinetobacter strain Raminalimon showed the highest activity. The facultative bacteria C. kwangyangense strain Cb (cfu mL-1 231x10-6, OD: 0.5), E. cloacae (cfu mL-1 68x10-7, OD: 0.5) and E. aerogenes (cfu mL-1 33x10-7, OD: 0.5) were used for digestion study with the rumen fluid microflora. The in vitro gas production technique was applied for the comparative study and the parameters measured were pH, gas (volume), dry matter lost, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid concentrations. pH was not significantly (p<0.05) different among the five treatments. The bacterium C. kwangyangense strain Cb showed the highest activity (p<0.05) for DM lost, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid production from rice straw when compared to the other bacterial activities. There was no significance (p<0.05) difference between the three bacteria for the dry matter lost of oil palm fronds but the production of Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) was significantly (p<0.05) high in the treatment which was inoculated with C. kwangyangense strain Cb. The Gen Bank NCBI/EMBL accession numbers for the bacterial strains are EU332791, EU305608, EU305609, EU294508 and EU169201.
  A.F. Soleimani , A. Kasim , A.R. Alimon and I. Zulkifli
  A trial was conducted to determine the influence of short term exposure to high ambient temperature at 28 and 35 days of age on deep body temperatures (Tb) and subsequent growth of birds until 42 days of age. A total of 90 day old chicks were reared in stainless steel battery cages and were assigned at random into 18 pens of 5 birds each, with 9 pens containing males and another 9 pens containing females. Three treatment groups, each represented by 3 male and 3 female pens, were represented by T1 without any heat exposure, T2 with heat exposure starting at day 28 and T3 with heat exposure starting at day 35. Heat stress was defined as 180 min exposure to 35±1°C. Tb and body weights were measured at 35, 37 and 39 days of age immediately following heat exposure. Heat stress resulted in higher Tb and Onset of heat stress at 28 days resulted in significantly lower Tb than onset of heat stress at 35 days. Lower Tb in T2 than T3 permitted recovery in body weight at 42 days. Sexes responded similarly to heat stress.
  E. Erwan , A.R. Alimon , A.Q. Sazili , H. Yaakub and R. Karim
  A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of leucine supplementation in grower-finisher diets containing varying levels of energy on the sensory characteristics and carcass composition of broiler chickens. In a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement, eighty 21-day old Cobb broiler chicks were divided into 16 groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 or 0.5 % L-leucine and metabolizable energy (ME) concentration at either 3200 kcal/kg or 3000 kcal/kg, for three weeks. Feed intake, growth performance and feed conversion ration were determined on a weekly basis. At the end of the trial, the birds were slaughtered, carcass composition determined and meat samples taken for sensory evaluation. There was no interaction between level of L-leucine and ME on the sensory characteristics and carcass composition at 42 days. Dietary level of L-leucine and ME had no significant effect (P>0.05) on the live-weight, breast meat, lean, bone, fat and skin. Similarly, the flavour, tenderness, aroma, juiciness and overall acceptability scores of breast meat of broiler fed diets supplemented with leucine were also not significantly different. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential impact of excess leucine in diets with reduced levels of crude protein.
  S.W. Zuhainis , N. Abdullah , A.R. Alimon and Y.W. Ho
  Anaerobic fungi were isolated from the rumens of cattle, buffalo and goat. A total of 133 isolates were obtained. Three of these isolates namely Neocallimastix frontalis B9, Piromyces mae B6 and Orpinomyces joyonii C3 were studied for their cellulolytic activity by using 14C-cellulose produced by Acetobacter xylinum as the substrate. The effects of phenolic acids on the cellulolytic activity of a fungal isolate N. frontalis B9 from buffalo was also determined. The results showed that among the fungal species, N. frontalis B9 had the highest cellulolytic activity, followed by P. mae B6 and O. joyonii C3. The cellulolytic activities of N. frontalis isolates from buffalo, cattle and goat were not significantly different. Both ρ-coumaric and ferulic acids reduced significantly (p<0.05) the celluloytic activity of N. frontalis B9.
  M. Ramin , A.R. Alimon , K. Sijam and N. Abdullah
  Bacterial strains isolated from the gut of the local termite Coptotermes curvignathus were inoculated into a buffered medium containing minerals and Whatman filter paper as the sole carbon source to observe the ability of the bacteria to digest solid substrate. The bacteria were Bacillus cereus strain Razmin A, Enterobacter aerogenes strain Razmin B, Enterobacter cloacae strain Razmin C, Acinetobacter strain Raminalimon and Chryseobacterium kwangyangense strain Cb. The Gen Bank NCBI/EMBL accession numbers for the bacterial strains were EU294508, EU305608, EU305609, EU332791 and EU169201, respectively. The ability of bacterial cultures to grow in this medium as well as to digest the filter paper was determined by visual observation after 30 days. All bacterial cultures showed growth as the medium turned cloudy and the filter paper became macerated. Chryseobacterium kwangyangense strain Cb showed yellow pigmented colonies on the filter paper. Bacillus cereus strain Razmin A showed clumps of degraded filter paper with black dots.
 
 
 
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