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Articles by A.O. Onigbinde
Total Records ( 5 ) for A.O. Onigbinde
  H.O.T. Iyawe , A.O. Onigbinde and O.O. Aina
  This study was designed to access the interaction of chloroquine and ascorbic acid in parasite induced oxidative stress, with the aim of ascertaining the relevance of such interaction in the treatment of malaria infection. A total of forty mice comprising of twenty males and twenty females were admitted for this study. Each sex category was divided into four groups of five mice and drugs administered intraperitoneally (ip). The presence of parasitemia in mice induced stress in subjects and elevated significantly (p<0.05) the values of all parameters under consideration except Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity that decreased (p<0.05) in male and female mice. Chloroquine treatment increased (p<0.05) SOD, Alanine and Aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST) respectively in both sexes as against control mice. Combination treatment with chloroquine and ascorbic acid reduced (p<0.05) Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in female mice and increased (p<0.05) SOD, AST and ALT compared to control mice. The same treatment increased (p<0.05) the activities of AST and ALT in male mice. Chloroquine used in single or in combination with ascorbic acid in the recommended dosage does not appear toxic to mice. A combination of these drugs shows the potential to reduce significantly parasite induced oxidative stress in female mice.
  H.O.T. Iyawe and A.O. Onigbinde
  This study was designed to access the interaction between chloroquine and folic acid in respiration induced oxidative stress, with the aims of employing these drugs in the treatment of malaria infection in the tropical and subtropical regions where the disease is endemic. A total of forty mice comprising of twenty males and twenty females were used in this investigation. Each sex category was divided into four groups of five mice and designated control, chloroquine, folate and chloroquine-folate group, respectively. All drugs were administered intraperitoneally (ip). Data collected and analyzed from treated mice show that folic acid reduced (p<0.05) malondialdehyde concentration in male and female mice. All administered drugs increased (p<0.05) the activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) in male and female mice compared to the control groups. Catalase activities increased (p<0.05) in females treated with chloroquine and the female group that received combined dose and in chloroquine treated males. Significant differences (p<0.05) were recorded in the activities of Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) activities in male and female mice. The finding from this study shows folic acid as having antioxidant property and chloroquine as a suppressant of this antioxidant activity of folic acid in normal mice.
  H.O.T. Iyawe and A.O. Onigbinde
  This research was designed to access the effect of chloroquine a common antimalarial and ascorbic acid a popular antioxidant, on oxidative stress and liver function in animal models, with the aim of applying the research findings to the treatment of some devastating tropical diseases. A total of forty mice comprising of twenty males and females were divided into four groups per sex category and test drugs were administered intra peritoneally (ip) in mono and combined doses to healthy mice. Chloroquine treatment increased all oxidative stress indices with catalase being significant (P<0.05) against control. Significant increases (P<0.05) were also indicated in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and in catalase activities in both sexes. Ascorbic acid generally reduced all (P>0.05) assayed stress indices but the reduction was significant (P<0.05) only in female mice as against control. A combined treatment of chloroquine and ascorbic acid did not show any significant decrease and increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and SOD, but catalase increased (P<0.05). Increases (P<0.05) were observed in SOD and catalase activities in both male and female mice. The activities of liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were determined and confirmed using gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity and increases (P<0.05) in the activity of this enzyme were observed in female mice given a combination treatment. This result indicates that ascorbic acid can ameliorate oxidative stress induced during normal aerobic metabolism in mice. Chloroquine and a combination of chloroquine and ascorbic acid treatment can adversely affect GGT in female mice.
  K.E. Ekpo and A.O. Onigbinde
  Proximate and chemical analyses was carried out on the larva of Rhynchophorus phoenicis (F) and the observed results used to assess it nutritionally. A high fat content ( 25.30±0.20% wet weight ) rich in the essential fatty acids was observed, while all the essential amino acids were detected in varying amounts in the protein component. Macro-elements like sodium (773.49±1.02 mg/100g), calcium (60.81±0.32 mg/100g) and potassium (26.65±0.24 mg/100g) as well as micro-elements like copper (1.26±0.04 mg/100g), cadmium (0.039±0.022 mg/100g) and zinc (10.57±0.89 mg/100g) were present in significant amounts in the insect larva. The insect larva could form a base for new food /feed products of considerable nutritive value, especially if some level of defatting is done to further increase the relative proportion of the protein component.
  K.E. Ekpo and A.O. Onigbinde
  Macrotermis bellicosus (a reproductive form of winged termite) oil was extracted, and the oil was physically and chemically characterized. The lipid content of the insect was 31.46±0.57 (wet weight). The oil was a clear, odourless liquid, of a light yellow colour and it was fluid at room temperature (26±2oC). Lipid analysis revealed that the insect oil comprised 69.87±0.73% neutral lipid, 19.14±0.06% phospholipid and 10.81±0.40% glycolipids. Further analysis revealed a refractive index of 1.20±0.01, specific gravity of 0.90±0.01, solidification value of 10-14oC, total lipid phosphorus of 47.18±0.03 (mg/g lipid), acid value of 3.60±0.06, iodine value of 108.00±0.15, saponification value of 193.40±0.31, unsaponifiable matter of 12.04±0.11, free cholesterol of 8.73±1.01 (mg/100g lipid) and total cholesterol of 47.18±0.03. The unsaturated fatty acids accounted for 51.02% of the total fatty acids whereas the saturated fatty acids constituted 48.98 % of the fatty acids. These values when compared with that observed in oils which have been considered to be of high quality, suggest that Macrotermis bellicosus oil has potentials that could be exploited by the nutritional and pharmaceutical companies.
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