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Articles by A.M. Patel
Total Records ( 3 ) for A.M. Patel
  Kumar Shambhu Sharnam , K.N. Wadhwani , K. Khanna and A.M. Patel
  Eight hundred eighty seven straight run day old commercial broiler chicks (Cobb) were randomly housed into eight equally spaced compartments (1.13 sq ft/bird) and allotted to two different rations viz. Ration-I: R1 (Broiler starter-I: 24.18% CP and 2999Kcal/Kg ME and Broiler finisher-I: 22.22% CP and 3108 Kcal/Kg ME) and Ration-II: R2 (Broiler starter-II: 22.12% CP, 2879Kcal/Kg ME and Broiler finisher-II: 19.87% CP and 2941Kcal/Kg ME) and two litter materials viz. L1 (Rice husk) and L2 (Wheat straw+saw dust) used and form four combinations in two replications viz. L1 R1, L1R2, L2R1 and L2R2. The body weight gain (g/bird) of experiment birds was recorded to be 1597.28 ± 34.66, 1595.10 ± 32.65, 1611.12 ± 34.66 and 1581.26 ± 32.65 under R1, R2, L1 and L2, respectively and influenced significantly by age only. Average weekly total feed intake (g/bird), FCR (Kg/Kg gain), average weekly water intake (ml/bird), water: feed intake ratio and performance efficiency factor were 512.50 ± 6.54, 1.59 ± 0.14, 1525.10 ± 25.08, 2.80 ± 0.08 and 212.10 ± 27.18, respectively and influenced significantly by age. The feed cost (Rs/bird) was 26.23 ± 0.07 and 26.43 ± 0.06 with R1 and R2, which did not influenced either by feed or litter materials but influenced significantly by their interaction. However, feed cost per kg gain (Rs/Kg), feed cost per dressed weight (Rs/kg), total production cost (Rs) on Ration I was 16.32 ± 1.88, 28.31 ± 0.29 and 18692.15 ± 36.98, respectively and were significantly higher than Ration II (15.22 ± 1.66, 25.69 ± 0.14 and 17642.76 ± 17.05) where as net profit/bird (Rs. 4.46 ± 0.08 and 8.45 ± 0.68), return over feed cost (Rs. 9461.86 ± 0.35 and 11347.96 ± 2.65) and return as percent of feed cost (184.44 ± 0.04 and 206.76 ± 0.02) were significantly lower in Ration I than Ration II. The litter materials showed their significant effect on average weekly livability percentage and manurial value. Ambient temperature inside the house was significantly higher than out side the house and established significant negative relationship with Relative Humidity (RH), Temperature Humidity Index (THI) and feed intake and significant positive relationship with water and water: feed intake ratio. The broiler birds can be reared economically on rice husk as a liter material by feeding 2879 (BS)-2941 (BF) ME energy and 22.12% (BS)-19.87% (BF) protein ration to harvest significantly higher return over feed cost (206.76%)
  R. Singh , K. Khanna , K.N. Wadhwani , R.S. Joshi and A.M. Patel
  Increase in feed prices in recent years has stimulated renewed interest in the area of feed restriction and simultaneously the birds have to provide space for feeding, watering and normal movements for their optimum growth and production. Thus, a great emphasis has been laid on feeding system, which employs the use of quantitative or qualitative feed restriction. During growing phase 468 White Leghorn (WLH) birds from random bred control population housed on deep litter housing system were exposed to three feeding regimes viz. T1 (ad lib.), T2 (Skip-two-days a week) and T3 (75% of ad lib.) on three different stocking densities viz. S1 (2.5 ft2/bird; 20 birds/pen), S2(2.0 ft2/bird; 25 birds/pen) and S3 (1.5 ft2/bird; 33 birds/pen) to form nine combinations of feed regimes and stocking density. Between 20 to 32 weeks of age, T1, T2 and T3 birds gained 31.76, 45.19 and 70.82 percent of body weight. The T1xS3 birds were heavier (1904.5±39.9 g) than other groups at the end of laying phase. The maximum feed consumed by T1 group (117.91±4.17 g) followed by T3 (116.61±3.80g) and T2 group (108.28±3.61 g), which differed significantly. T1xS3 birds consumed daily about 102 g feed and was significantly lower from other interaction groups. The birds kept under T3xS1 treatment gave maximum hen day egg production (64.36±6.78%) followed by T1xS2 (63.83±0.28%) and T1xS1 (61.71±4.84%). Hen housed egg production followed almost the same pattern with hen day egg production. Skip-two-days a week and 1.5-ft2/ bird treatment (T2xS3) produced eggs of 54.52 ±1.24 g weights, which were acceptable in market. It appears that skip-two-days fed birds reared on the density of 1.5 ft2/bird to be the most promising interaction group with respect to lower feed consumption during the laying period without any significant adverse effect on hen housed egg production. It appears that skip-two-days fed birds reared at the density of 1.5 ft2/bird to be the most promising interaction group with respect to lower feed consumption during the laying period.
  K.K. Parekh , A.M. Patel , A.J. Modi and H.R. Chandrashekhar
  Aim of study: Numerous species of the genus Ipomoea are widely used in traditional medicine as powerful cathartics and are reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic and anticancer activities. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate Ipomoea pes-caprae, Ipomoea batatas and Ipomoea nil for their antioxidant and cytotoxic activity. Materials and methods: Successive petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of different plant parts viz., leaves, stem, roots and whole plant of Ipomoea pes-caprae, Ipomoea batatas and Ipomoea nil were evaluated for their free radical scavenging activity by different in vitro assays including DPPH radical scavenging assay, Nitric oxide radical inhibition activity, ABTS radical scavenging assay, Alkaline DMSO assay, Haemolysis prevention, Hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay, Hydroxyl radical scavenging assay and Lipid peroxidation assay. Methanolic extracts of these Ipomoea plants were also investigated for their total phenolic and flavonoid content. Free phenolics isolated from the most active methanolic extract were also evaluated for antioxidant activity. Polarity based successive fractionation was performed for the methanolic extract using chloroform and ethyl acetate. Cytotoxicity of methanolic extracts, petroleum ether extracts and isolated free phenolics was evaluated by MTT and SRB assay using HEp-2 cell line. Results: All methanolic extracts of selected Ipomoea plants showed the presence of Glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates and tannins. Methanolic extracts showed better antioxidant activity when compared to petroleum ether extracts with IC50 value in the range of 25-475 and 5-50 μg mL-1 for DPPH and ABTS methods, respectively. Methanolic extract of Ipomoea pes-caprae leaves, Ipomoea nil leaves and Ipomoea pes-caprae roots showed comparatively better antioxidant activity. These extracts also showed comparatively higher phenolic and flavonoid content. Free phenolics isolated from leaves of Ipomoea pes-caprae showed better activity than crude methanolic extract when investigated by nitric oxide, ABTS and Hydrogen peroxide methods but when tested by DPPH and alkaline DMSO method, crude extracts showed better activity. All methanolic extracts and isolated free phenolics showed good cytotoxicity against HEp-2 cell line with CTC50 value in the range of 50-100 μg mL-1. Conclusion: The successive methanolic extract of selected Ipomoea plants showed potent ability to scavenge different types of free radicals generated by various in vitro assays. The total phenol and flavonoid content estimation of these methanolic extracts revealed their presence in good quantities. Among different methanolic extracts tested for antioxidant activity, the leaf extract of Ipomoea pes-caprae was the most potent extract. The same extract contained highest amount of total phenolics and flavonoids which suggests that the antioxidant nature of the extract is due to its high phenolic and flavonoid content. Among the fractions of the above extract, prepared according to their polarity, the ethyl acetate fraction showed best activity. Ethyl acetate fraction is believed to possess phenolics and flavonoids. Thus, this study reconfirms that the potent antioxidant activity of Ipomoea pes-caprae leaf is due to its high phenol and flavonoid contents. All methanolic extracts and free phenolics showed good cytotoxicity against Hep-2 cell line with CTC50 value in the range of 50-100 μg mL-1. So it can be concluded that Ipomoea pes-caprae, Ipomoea batatas and Ipomoea nil are having good antioxidant and cytotoxic activity and their antioxidant activity is mainly due the phenolics and flavonoids. Further studies are needed to prove the anticancer activity of these plants.
 
 
 
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