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Articles by A.M. Gbadebo
Total Records ( 11 ) for A.M. Gbadebo
  A.M. Gbadebo , A.M. Taiwo and O.B. Ola
  Problem statement: Petroleum hydrocarbon and petroleum residue (i.e., spent oil) remains the foremost pollutants to the fish communities in various aquatic media-ponds, streams, rivers, creeks, coastal and marine environments through indiscriminate disposal of oil contaminated drilling muds, cutting and oil spillages. Approach: Also, the spent oil enters into aquatic media through run-off following unguided disposal. Both the petroleum hydrocarbon and spent oil, on getting to the water bodies spread fast and produce lethal, sub-lethal and even acute effect of petroleum hydrocarbon and spent oil on the fingerlings and other juvenile fishes. Results: Since this group of fish constitutes about 60% of the fish population in any aquatic medium, a green house study was carried out to assess the effects of crude oil and spent oil on fingerlings of Clarias garipinus-a typical marine fish. In this study, fingerlings of Clarias garipinus were exposed to 2-10% concentration of crude oil and spent oil for 96 h period. Readings were taken every 24 h. From concentration of 4-10%, high mortality rate averaging 10 out of 10 fingerlings were recorded. Conclusion/Recommendations: The deaths were attributed to reduced dissolved oxygen and blockage of the water surface by the oils. Concentrations of 2% showed a reduced level of mortality, which even lapsed over the 96 h period. The mortalities were owed to impairment in neurologically dysfunction. Changes in physiological character such as changes in skin color and reduced locomotive actions were also observed.
  J.A. Awomeso , A.M. Taiwo , A.M. Gbadebo and A.O. Arimoro
  Problem statement: Both wastes and the crude disposal techniques have created subtle and yet serious environmental pollution havoc in many developing countries. This has lead to the degradation of abiotic and biotic components of these nations’ ecological systems. Poor industrial waste disposal systems as well as the indiscriminate and inappropriate domestic litter disposal habit have been identified and proved to be basic features in rural settlements, semi-urban areas and urban centers of the developing world. These have seriously contributed to environmental pollution and ecological deterioration. The major reasons for these were identified to be inadequate information and insufficient modern waste disposal facilities. Approach: This study highlighted the use of simple, yet efficient waste disposal techniques and recommends the adequate supply and optimal utilization of trashcan and rubbish drums in private and public places; the consistent and wide use of recyclable materials and recycling equipment; information flow and training of all on the use of new techniques and methods and the need for the production and/or introduction of other appropriate technology and policy to enhance the implementation and execution of proper waste management schemes that will contribute to a cleaner and safer environment in developing countries. Results: As a result, sanitary landfills were developed to replace the practice of open dumping and to reduce the reliance on waste incineration. Conclusion: In the light of this review research, I recommend that there should be private participation in managing wastes in the developing nation. Since the largest percentage of wastes in developing countries is mainly organic, composting of wastes should be encouraged.
  A.M. Gbadebo and A.J. Amos
  The results of the radionuclides analysis in the bedrock (i.e., limestone and shale) and soil samples (surface and subsurface) samples collected from locations around Ewekoro cement factory indicated an average total specific activity values of 7.78±2.74, 8.99±3.90 and 17.63±1.98 Bq kg-1 for 238U, 232Th and 40K, respectively in the surface soils while average total specific activity values of 8.07±2.88, 8.25±3.18 and 16.52±1.98 Bq kg-1 for 238U, 232Th and 40K, respectively were obtained for subsurface soils. Similarly, the average total specific activity values of 91.30±2.33, 5.75±2.57 and 35.86±7.06 Bq kg-1 for 238U, 232Th and 40K, respectively were obtained for limestone bedrock type while values of 3.74±11.42, 5.95±2.26 and 348.20±61.82 Bq kg-1, for 238U, 232Th and 40K, respectively were obtained for the shale bedrock type. From the above, geogenic source of the radionuclides with some anthropogenic implications can be inferred.
  A.M. Gbadebo
  This study determined the concentrations of natural radionuclidess in the crystalline bedrocks and soils of the selected abandoned quarries in Abeokuta area and their possible health impacts. The results of the radionuclide from rocks in the study area indicated varying concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K. Among the quarries, rocks from AGI (Saje quarry) have the highest concentration of all the radionuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K) while the values are lower in the samples from Colonial quarry (Adigbe). However, 40K has the highest concentration in the rocks of the abandoned quarry sites, followed by 238U and least for 232Th. This trend is maintained in both the surface and subsurface soils with slight modification. It can therefore be inferred that the radionuclides types observed are based on the local geology of the study area and these radionuclides will serve as possible sources of radiation to the local quarry workers and the nearby residents alike.
  A.S. Okedeyi , A.M. Gbadebo , T.A. Arowolo and P. Tchokosa
  Using NaI (Ti) gamma ray spectrometer, the activity concentration of Naturally Occurring Radionuclide (NOR) were determined in rock and soil samples from Navy quarry site, Abeokuta, South-Western, Nigeria. The ranges of activity concentrations of NOR in the rock were 98.75±13.28-142.93±31.09, 21.25±9.82-34.52±11.21 and 19.27±7.91-22.03±9.83 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 238U and 232Th. The calculated ranges of Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR), Annual Effective Dose (AED), Radium equivalent dose rate (Raeq) and External hazard index (Hex) were 27.51-33.59 nGy h-1, 48.26-56.03 μS y-1, 59.03-73.63 Bq kg-1 and 0.15-0.199, respectively. The range of activity concentration of the sampled soils were 40K (316.89±87.39-533.98±88.57 and 385.71±86.74-613.60±88.52 Bq kg-1), 238U (38.74±13.09-72.89±20.76 and 35.70±8.48-67.98±16.76 Bq kg-1) and 232Th (29.87±11.67-54.26±14.97 and 24.23±8.90-51.90±22.08 Bq kg-1). Similarly, the corresponding ranges of ADR, AED, Raeq and Hex were 60.30-89.76 nGy h-1, 73.96-110.08 μSv y-1, 129.30-191.60 Bq kg-1, 0.34-0.52 and 50.15-84.59 nGy h-1, 61.51-103.76 μSv y-1, 106.55-180.58 Bq kg-1 and 0.29-0.49, respectively at the two depths of soil sampling. All the sampled rock and soil have Raeq values lower than 370 Bq kg-1 recommended limit by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) while the mean AED of the sampled soil were higher than world recommended dose value of 70 μS y-1. Hence, the food crops grown on the soil of the study area will be rich in NOR. There will be need for routine assessment of radionuclide contents of the rocks and soils of the quarry site.
  A.M. Gbadebo and H. Ayedun
  Within and around major cities of Southwestern Nigeria, there are scores of quarry industries whose activities constitute menace into the immediate environments. This study assessed the level of natural radiations resident in different rock aggregate sizes, surface and subsurface soils within and around a typical quarry sites (Stone bridge quarry) located close to Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. Radiations were determined to a maximum depth of 2.0 m and up to 500 m away from the quarry phases. The radiation level was found to be higher in the freshly quarried coarse aggregate (138 count per minute (cpm)) than previously quarried coarse rock aggregate (132 cpm) and also higher in muscovitic coarse aggregate (120 cpm) than in biotitic coarse aggregate (108 cpm). However, the radiation levels in dust (<½ inch), 1.27 cm (½ inch), 1.91 cm (¾ inch) aggregates are 90, 126 and 120 cpm, respectively. Similarly the radiation levels generally ranged between 42 and 120 cpm in the surface soils and between 48 and 138 cpm in the subsurface soils. However, the maximum value of dose rate and annual effective dose of 47.7±1 ng h-1 and 58.54±1 μSv year-1 was recorded for aggregate sizes, while the maximum dose rate of 43.4±1 and 49.9±3 ngy h-1 were recorded for surface and subsurface soils, respectively. The maximum annual effective dose of 53.30±1 and 61.4±2 μSv year-1 for surface and subsurface soils, respectively. Continuous exposure on the parts of the quarry workers and the farmers in the study area may constitute health hazards in the near future. Regular monitoring of radiation level and determination of different types of radio-nuclides in the area is recommended in order to put in place appropriate policy on health of the citizenry.
  A.M. Gbadebo , H. Ayedun and A.S. Okedeyi
  Within and around major cities of Southwestern Nigeria, there are scores of quarry industries whose activities constitute menace into the immediate environments. This study assessed the level of natural radiations resident in different rock aggregate sizes, surface and subsurface soils within and around a typical quarry sites (Stone bridge quarry) located close to Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. Radiations were determined to a maximum depth of 2.0 m and up to 500 m away from the quarry phases. The radiation level was found to be higher in the freshly quarried coarse aggregate (138 count per minute (cpm)) than previously quarried coarse rock aggregate (132 cpm) and also higher in muscovitic coarse aggregate (120 cpm) than in biotitic coarse aggregate (108 cpm). However, the radiation levels in dust (<½ inch), 1.27 cm (½ inch), 1.91 cm (¾ inch) aggregates are 90, 126 and 120 cpm, respectively. Similarly the radiation levels generally ranged between 42 and 120 cpm in the surface soils and between 48 and 138 cpm in the subsurface soils. However, the maximum value of dose rate and annual effective dose of 47.7±1 nG h-1 and 58.54±1 μSv year-1 was recorded for aggregate sizes while the maximum dose rate of 43.4±1 and 49.9±3 nG y h-1 were recorded for surface and subsurface soils, respectively. The maximum annual effective dose of 53.30±1 and 61.4±2 μSv year-1 for surface and subsurface soils, respectively. Continuous exposure on the parts of the quarry researchers and the farmers in the study area may constitute health hazards in the near future. Regular monitoring of radiation level and determination of different types of radio-nuclides in the area is recommended in order to put in place appropriate policy on health of the citizenry.
  A.M. Gbadebo and O.D. Bankole
  This study analyzed the concentration levels of potentially toxic and harmful elements contained in the airborne cement dust generated in the vicinity and farther away 500 m in the conventional four cardinal directions from the West African Portland Cement Company (WAPCO) factory mill, Sagamu. The results indicated that the concentration range of these toxic elements fall between 40.0 and 280,000 μg g–1 in the cement dust samples. Also, the concentration range of these toxic elements in 1 L of air samples varies between 0.01 μg g–1 and 29.92 μg L–1. The results generally show elevated concentrations of all the elements when compared with USA threshold limit of particulate metal concentration (e.g., Pb (1.5 g m–3); Cd (0.004-0.026 g m–3) in the air. These elements in the airborne cement dusts may pose a great threat to the health of plants, animals and residents in and around the factory and also to workers and visitors to the factory.
  A.S. Okedeyi , A.M. Gbadebo , T.A. Arowolo , A.O. Mustapha and P. Tchokossa
  Crystalline rocks have been observed to be rich in Naturally Occurring Radionuclides (NOR) which are the primary terrestrial sources of radiation in the environment. This study determined the activity concentrations of NOR in rocks and soils from Saunder quarry site, Abeokuta North, South-Western, Nigeria. Three rocks were randomly collected and ten soil samples comprising five surface and five sub-surface were collected by pitting to depth of interest in each location and analyzed using NaI (Tl) gamma spectrometer. The average activity concentrations of 40K, 238U and 232Th in rock samples were 603.62±83.29, 39.70±12.57 and 62.64±20.71 Bq kg-1, respectively. The calculated average Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR) and Annual Effective Dose (AED) were 84.01 nGy h-1 and 103.03 μSv y-1. While for soils, the mean activity concentration for the two depths were 145.10±12.64 and 236.08±17.34 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 13.36±3.53 and 23.99±6.80 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 15.09±5.48 and 10.54±5.67 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, respectively. Similarly, the corresponding average ADR and AED for soil were 28.99 nGy h-1 and 35.56 μSv y-1 for surface 33.32 nGy h-1 and 40.87 μSv y-1 for sub-surface, respectively. The average values for AED of the sampled rock were higher than 70 μSv y-1. Hence, the granite rock used for building and construction purpose from the study area would be rich in NOR. Routine assessment of radionuclide contents of the rocks of the quarry site was recommended.
  A.S. Okedeyi , A.M. Gbadebo and A.O. Mustapha
  Activity concentration of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides (NOR) in soil samples were measured using NaI (Tl) scintillation detector. The soil samples were collected from twenty quarry sites across four Local government areas of Ogun state, Nigeria. The impacts of particle size distribution, organic carbon and matter as well as pH values of the soil samples, on the concentration of the radionuclides were determined using Pearson correlation and analysis of variance statistical methods. The activity concentration of potassium (40K), uranium (228U) and thorium (232Th) in the soil ranged from 6.48-801.56, 2.04-90.12 and 2.60-89.23 Bq kg-1, respectively. The result further revealed that there is no positive correlation between physical and chemical parameters and the radionuclides concentration in the soil samples. Whereas there are strong and positive correlation between the radionuclides concentrations.
  A.S. Okedeyi , A.M. Gbadebo , T.A. Arowolo and A.O. Mustapha
  The abundance of crystalline rocks in Ogun State has resulted in increasing number of quarry activities and sites. These rocks which have been observed to be rich in Naturally Occurring Radionuclides (NOR) are the primary terrestrial sources of radiation in the environment. This study measured the gamma radioactivity level in bedrocks and soils of quarry sites in Ogun State, South-Western, Nigeria. Measurements of radiation were made randomly at 10 locations in each of the 20 quarry sites using fluke-victoreen ASM-990 survey meter. The measured dose rates above the bedrocks and soils of the quarries ranged from 2.3-19.4 and 2.7-19.4 nGy h-1 which corresponding to annual effective dose ranges of 2.60-23.81 and 3.31-22.30 μSv y-1, respectively using occupancy factor. Similarly, the result of linear regression between the measured absorbed dose rate on top of the bedrocks and top of the soils in the 20 quarry sites revealed that there is a strong positive correlation (R2 = 0.80) which implies that, the radiation from the soil of the study area are derived from the underlying rocks. The mean absorbed doses of this study were low compared to values from other studies and world recommended value of 70 μSv y-1. However, no matter how low, all levels of ionizing radiation are hazardous to human health. Hence, there will be need for continuous monitoring of the radiation level in and around the quarry sites.
 
 
 
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