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Articles by A.M. Ali
Total Records ( 9 ) for A.M. Ali
  T. Althnaian , K.M. Alkhodair , I.F. Albokhadaim , A. Homaida and A.M. Ali
  The objective of this study was to study in detail about the endocrine cells of the camel duodenum. The duodenum is not only an important part of the gastrointestinal tract, but also works as endocrine portion by secreting some hormones that play key roles in the regulation of certain organs. Specimens from eleven dromedarian camels (Camelus dromedarius) of both sexes with age ranging from 2-12 years were examined. The immunohistochemistry was performed using five types of hormones. Gastrin showed high immunoreactivity at the endocrine of tunica mucosa and duodenal glands. Somatostatin showed very high immunoreactivity at endocrine of tunica mucosa and duodenal gland. The performance of insulin, which was done for the first time on the duodenum of camel, showed low immunoreactivity at endocrine cells of tunica mucosa and duodenal glands. Serotonin showed high immunoreactivity at the enteroendocrine cells of the tunica mucosa and few cells that produced serotonin at duodenal glands. Glucagon showed moderate to low immunoreactivity at the endocrine of tunica mucosa and duodenal glands. In conclusion, the study results found that the duodenum of the camel has distinctive characters immunohistochemically. Therefore, further physiological and experimental studies are required.
  A.A. Ghazalah , M.O. Abd - Elsamee and A.M. Ali
  Heat stress and the associated production losses and mortality are a challenge to commercial broiler production. A total number of 1000 one day old unsexed Arbor Acres broiler chicks were used in this study. Birds were offered with water and grower diet containing 23% crude protein and 3100 kcal ME/ kg of the diet from 1 to 4 weeks of age. At 29 day of age, 900 birds of nearly similar live body weight (about 850 g) were chosen to study the effect of different levels of metabolizable energy (ME) and poultry fat (PF) on broiler performance, nutrients digestibility and carcass characteristics during the hot summer season (29 - 36 °C and 50 - 60% H). The birds were randomly distributed into 9 treatments, each contained 100 birds in 4 replicates of 25 birds each. Three levels of ME and three levels of PF were tested in 3 X 3 factorial designs to alleviate the side effects of heat stress on broiler chick performance. The tested ME levels (kcal/ kg) were 3100 (low level, ME1), 3200 (recommended level, ME2) and 3300 (high level, ME3). The tested three levels of PF were 0 % (PF1), 2.5% (PF2) and 5% (PF3) for each level of ME. Chicks were allocated in a littered floor poultry house in an open system under the same management conditions. Water and feed were offered ad-libitum and artificial lighting was provided 24 hours daily for the either experimental period, which lasted for 7 weeks.The overall results showed that the average body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and performance index were improved significantly with high levels of either metabolizable energy or poultry fat. Data showed that the digestion coefficient of both crude protein and ether extract were improved significantly when broiler chicks were fed diets containing high level of either metabolizable energy or poultry fat. Results indicated that the average values of abdominal fat increased significantly with high levels of either metabolizable energy or poultry fat. While, there were no significant differences for either dressing percentage or giblets due to dietary treatments. Therefore, it is suggested to increase dietary metabolizable energy more than recommended level and adding fat up to 5 % of the diet to alleviate the side effects of heat stress on the performance of broiler chicks.
  A.A. Ghazalah and A.M. Ali
  This study was conducted to investigate the use of Rosemary leaves meal as a natural growth promoter in broiler diets on bird performance and immunity. RLM was added in either grower (7-28 day) or finisher (29-49day) diets at three concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%). A total of 200 one-day old unsexed Arbor Acres chicks were assigned equally into four treatment groups, with five replicates of 10 chicks each. Chemical analysis of RLM showed a CF content of 19.4% of which 15.89% was present as cellulose. The essential oil of RLM ranged between 1.4-1.6% and the main active components were camphor (11-16%), alpha pinene (15-20%) and cineole (30-35%) which has a high degree of inhibition against many bacteria and fungi. Compared to control, chicks fed 0.5 % RLM exhibited higher body weights, greater weight gain, and better feed conversion during the experimental period as well as better physical properties of the chicken meat. Moreover, 0.5% dietary rosemary increased plasma total protein, albumin and globulin while decreasing glucose, total lipids and cholesterol content. RLM additions did not affect enzymatic activity related to liver and kidney functions. RLM stimulated thyroid function, as evidenced by increased plasma levels of T3, T4 compared to controls. Antibody production against sheep red blood cells was improved and the percentage of the lymphoid organs was increased compared to controls. Increasing the dietary level of RLM more than 0.5% lowered growth and the digestibility of most nutrients. Thus, low levels of dietary RLM could be safely used in broiler diets to promote growth and to impart healthful constituents to the consumer.
  T. Althnaian , K.M. Alkhodair , I.F. Albokhadaim , R.O. Ramdan and A.M. Ali
  The main objective of this research was to study the morphological characters of the camel duodenum. The general features of the camel duodenum were studied macroscopically. The camel duodenum was grayish to white in color. It was divided into two parts i.e., ampulla and thin part which form the long part. The thin part was divided into three parts i.e., descending part, caudal duodenal flexure (transverse part) and ascending part. The duodenum began at the pylorus and ended at the beginning of jejunum. Its mucosa was pink to grayish in color with crossed circular and longitudinal fold at the ampulla and longitudinal fold at the thin part. The length of the duodenum ranged between 1.2-3.1 m. In conclusion, the camel duodenum has distinctive morphological characters. The study provided an excellent potential for further physiological studies on camel duodenum under an arid environment.
  N.A.M. Ali , M. Rahmani , K. Shaari , A.M. Ali and G. Ee Cheng Lian
  The air dried barks of Cinnamomum impressicostatum and C. pubescens were separately and sequentially extracted with hexane, chloroform and methanol and assayed against five bacteria and four fungi by disc diffusion method. The hexane and chloroform extracts of the plants strongly suppressed the growth of the four fungi but range from moderate to weak towards bacteria. The methanol extracts only displayed weak activity on some of these organisms. Based on these results, further work was carried on bioassay-guided isolation of active extracts of C. impressicostatum and C. pubescens and on both occasions the active component was identified as (E)-methyl cinnamate. Other compounds were also isolated and identified as safrole, (E)-piperonylprop-2-enal, β-sitosterol, (E)-piperonylprop-2-enol and cinnamic acid. The structures of the compounds were established by spectroscopic method and comparison with literatures. (E)-methyl cinnamate exhibited strong growth inhibition towards four of the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida lipolytica, C. albicans, Microsporum canis with inhibition zone ranging from 24.5 to 19.8 mm. The compound is also capable of suppressing the growth of bacteria Bacillus cereus. It is proposed that the excellent antifungal activities of the hexane and chloroform extracts of C. impressicostatum and C. pubescens correlate with the presence of (E)-methyl cinnamate as the major component.
  A.M. Ali , A.A. Basmidi , M.Sh. Aideed and Al-Quffail A. Saeed
  Abalone has been exploited by humans around the ocean coasts of the world. On contrary, it is still neglected in the Gulf of Aden. This study is a first attempt to explore the biological and ecological status of the absolutely unexploited abalone Haliotis pustulata in the Aden Gulf, Yemen. Between Jan 2004 and June 2006, about 700 abalones were collected and analyzed from Intertidal and sublittoral zones along 6 sites of Hadhramout coast. It is revealed that the studied species is relatively small, measuring up to 62 mm, with a slow growth rate of 4-10 mm year-1 and has moderate fertility compared with many other species in other localities. The highest GSI as well as the highest proportion of mature Sufaylah were prevailed from March to May. Morphological traits, spread, age-size structure and reproduction behavior are discussed in the light of the absence of local similitude studies and well documented world wide haliotids. Results call for necessity of more detailed studies.
  A.M. Ali and A.H. McNoon
  During April 2006, for the first time in the Aden Gulf 34 specimens of Bramids were caught by means of pelagic longline at depths varying between 350-480 m. Specimens were thoroughly studied, morphological and biological features were recorded immediately while they were iced fresh. As a result of the present study Taractes rubescens Jordan and Evermann from the family Bramidae (Perciformes) and Argyropelecus aculeatus Valencienn from the family Sternoptychidae (Stomiiformes) were newly recognized in Aden Gulf and consequently the Arabian Sea. A big fish size, high falcate front of dorsal and anal fins and widely forked crescent-shaped caudal fin is the main distinctive characteristics of Taractes rubescens. Most of the morphometric traits are well expounded and given here for first time. As well as, some important biological characteristics were noticed. From this study it can concluded that deep Aden gulf still holds a lot of attractive conditions for oceanic and deep water marine organisms, which need profound and meticulously long-term scientific investigations.
  M. Shuhaimi , A. M. Yazid , A.M. Ali , M.H. Ghazali , H. Zaitun and N.A.Nur Atiqah
  Bifidobacterium isolates obtained from infants stools were assessed for their ability to survive in HCI solutions adjusted to pH levels of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0. Five isolates (Bifidobacterium breve C20, B. infantis D22, B. infantis F91, B. infantis G4 and B. infantis Z45) out of 28 were able to survive at pH 1.0 after 0 h exposure. Survival was not detected after 1 h exposure to this pH level. At pH 2.0, only five isolates (B. infantis D22, B. infantis F66, B. infantis F34, B. breve F100 and B. infantis G4) survived after 1 h exposure. Four isolates (B. infantis D22, B. infantis F117, B. infantis F34 and B. infantis Z45) were able to survive at pH 3.0 during the 3 h incubation period. At pH 6.5 (control), essentially all isolates of bifidobacteria survived during 3 h incubation.
  Shuhaimi M. , A.M. Yazid , A.M. Ali , M.H. Ghazali , H. Zaitun and N.A. Nur Atiqah
  Bifidobacterium infantis G4 isolated from infant stool was tested for their antibacterial activity, antimicrobial susceptibility and adherence properties to human colon carcinoma HT29 cell lines. The isolate was observed to be effective in inhibiting the growth of pathogens namely Salmonella enteritidis, Vibrio cholera, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Listeria monocytogenes. It was resistant to aminoglycoside, sulfonamide and tetracycline groups of antibiotics. The adhesion property of this isolate to human colon carcinoma HT29 cell lines was found to be excellent.
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