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Articles by A.M. Ahmed
Total Records ( 4 ) for A.M. Ahmed
  M.M. Omer , S.M. Abusalab , M.M. Gumaa , S.A. Mulla , E.A. Omer , I.E. Jeddah , A.M. AL-Hassan , M.A Hussein and A.M. Ahmed
  The study aimed to provide documented information on the epidemiological and economical effects of the disease to assist in disease control policies and planning research priorities in the region. The outbreak of colibacillosis was reported among broiler and layer chicks reared in closed and semi closed system In Kassala State, Eastern Sudan. Mortality rate of the disease was 6.8% in the broiler flocks and 1.9% in the layers ones. Diagnosis of the disease was made on the basis of the case history, clinical signs, postmortem findings and laboratory examinations. Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates were obtained from infected organs of broiler and layer flocks. Isolation and identification of E. coli were achieved by using biochemical diagnostic test kits. The isolates were highly resistant to most tested antibiotics. The cost of losses in broilers and layer chicks due to the outbreak was recorded. Factors which associated with the disease were discussed and some recommendations were outlined to avoid such outbreak.
  A.M. Ahmed , E.M. Al-Olayan and M.A. Amoudy
  Great efforts are currently being done to utilize the immune system of mosquito vectors in the battle against the different mosquito-borne parasitic and viral diseases. Based on this control strategy, the current study has been conducted to induce and enhance the most effective immune responses, the humoral and melanization responses, in the dengue fever vector, Aedes aegypti against live bacteria and non-biological agents at 24 h post-treatments. The humoral activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli was investigated after thoracic injection of the same bacteria or the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into mosquitoes using the inhibition zone assay. Melanization response was tested against the thoracic inoculated Sephadex® beads, positively charged CM A-25, negatively charged CM G-25 and neutral CM C-25 and inert glass beads. These immune responses were then enhanced via the oral administration of 0.3% thymoquenone (Thq), the main active ingredient of the black seeds, Nigella sativa, to mosquitoes. Data demonstrated that, on one hand mosquitoes exhibited strong humoral activity against the injected bacteria as well as against the well-known immune sensitive bacteria, Micrococcus luteus. Moreover, melanization response was strong against differently charged Sephadex® beads, but not against the inert glass beads. On the other hand, significant increases in the humoral anti-bacterial lyses activity and anti-beads melanization response (up to 6 folds in some cases) was clearly shown when mosquitoes were maintained on 0.3% Thq-glucose mixture (in 10% glucose). Therefore, these data may indicate that both humoral antimicrobial activity and melanization response could be enhanced to be more effective against disease-organisms transmitted by mosquitoes. Thus, this study suggests a possible immuno-control strategy in the battle against mosquito-born diseases which, in fact, will be tested against dengue viruses in the future studies.
  A.M. Ahmed
  Great efforts are currently being done to utilize the immune system of mosquito vector in the battle against malaria. However, this strategy still facing some limiting factors mainly the reproductive cost, the price of immune induction. This study has been introduced to show that inducing non-costly immune responses in the African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, is possible via the oral administration of Black Seed Oil (BSO), a natural botanical extract from Nigella sativa, to mosquitoes. The humoral anti-Micrococcus luteus activity, induced by LPS injection and melanization, against inoculated Sephadex® beads, were studied here (at 18 h post-treatment). The humoral anti-bacterial activity was measured using inhibition zone assay. The degrees of melanization response against negatively charged CM C-25 and neutral CM G-25 Sephadex® beads were monitored under the microscope. Reproductive cost was monitored in terms of percentages of follicular apoptosis and resorption at 18 and 24 h post-treatment, respectively. Data of this study demonstrate that, mosquitoes maintained on 0.3% BSO-glucose mixture (in 10% glucose) showed, on one hand, significant increases in the humoral anti-bacterial activity or melanization response when injected with LPS or inoculated with beads respectively. Moreover, these tow responses were more pronounced in blood fed mosquitoes. On the other hand, significant declines in the % of follicular apoptosis and resorption were reported in the ovaries of the same immunized mosquitoes. In addition, BSO showed no toxic effect on ookinetes development, both in vivo and in vitro, or on the viability of mosquito cells in vitro. Therefore, these data may indicate that the non-toxic BSO may have a dual effect as it enhanced immunity and reduced the concomitant impact on the reproductive fitness. Thus, this study suggests BSO as a candidate in support of the immuno-control strategy in the battle against malaria.
  M.M. Omer , Sarah Abusalab , M.M. Gumaa , S.A. Mulla , H.M. Osman , Y.A. Sabiel and A.M. Ahmed
  In this study, Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from a draught horse presented to Kassala Veterinary Research Laboratory (KVRL) for investigation and diagnosis. The affected animal was previously treated with Gentamycin and Tetracycline before submitted to this laboratory, but the animal was not cure. Thereafter, the animal was attended to the laboratory; it was suffering from inguinal abscess and some clinical signs. Clinical and laboratory examinations were carried out however, the animal was suddenly fallen and died immediately. Then post-mortem, bacteriological and histopathological examinations were done. S. aureus was isolated as pure culture from the lungs and peritoneum of the necropsied animal. This isolate showed highly sensitivity to Erythromycin and Clindamycin and it was resistant to Penicillin, Cloxacillin, Cefotaxime, Co-Trimoxazole, Cephalexin and Tetracycline. It was concluded from this study, the shock resulted from S. aureus was the causative agent of the death in this case.
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