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Articles by A.K. Ariffin
Total Records ( 13 ) for A.K. Ariffin
  M.M. Rahman , A.K. Ariffin , S. Abdullah , M.M. Noor and Rosli A. B
  This research presents the durability assessment of cylinder block for a two-stroke free piston engine using narrow band approach. The life prediction results are worthy for improving the component design at the very early developing stage. This approach is adequate for periodic loading, however, requires very large time records to accurately describe random loading processes. Fatigue damage in conventionally determined from time signals of the loading, frequently in the form of stress and strain. However, there are scenarios when a spectral form of loading is more appropriate. In this case the loading is defined in terms of its magnitude at different frequencies in the form of a Power Spectral Density (PSD) plot. The vibration fatigue calculation can be utilized where the random loading and response are categorized using power spectral density functions and the dynamic structure is modeled as a linear transfer function. This research also investigates the effect of the mean stress on the fatigue life prediction using the random loading. The acquired results indicate that the Goodman mean stress correction method gives the most conservative results with the Gerber and no (zero) mean stress method. It is observed that the compressive mean stresses are beneficial while the tensile mean stresses are detrimental to the fatigue life. The proposed technique is capable of determining premature products failure phenomena. Therefore, this technique is able to reduce cost, time to market, improve the product reliability and finally the user confidence.
  M.M. Rahman , A.K. Ariffin , S. Abdullah , M.M. Noor , Rosli A. Bakar and M. A. Maleque

Objectives: This study was focused on the finite element techniques to investigate the effect of surface treatment on the fatigue life of the vibrating cylinder block for new two-stroke free piston engine using random loading conditions.
An understanding of the effects related to the random loading is necessary to improve the ability of designers to accurately predict the fatigue behavior of the components in service. An internal combustion engine cylinder block is a high volume production component subjected to random loading.
Problem statement:
Proper optimization of this component that is critical to the engine fuel efficiency and more robustly pursued by the automotive industry in recent years. A detailed understanding of the applied loads and resulting stresses under in-service conditions is demanded.
The finite element modeling and analysis were performed utilizing the computer aided design and finite element analysis codes respectively. In addition, the fatigue life prediction was carried out using finite element based fatigue analysis code. Aluminum alloys were considered as typical materials in this study.
Results: The frequency response approach was applied to predict the fatigue life of cylinder block using different load histories. Based on the finite element results, it was observed that the fatigue life was significantly influenced for the nitriding treatment. The obtained results were indicated that the nitrided treatment produces longest life for all loading conditions.
Conclusion: The nitriding process is one of the promising surface treatments to increase the fatigue life for aluminum alloys linear engine cylinder block.

  S. Abdullah , M.F. Abdullah , A.K. Ariffin and A. Jalar
  The copper-based leadframe is practically proven effective in the thermal and reliability of a Quad Flat No Lead (QFN) three dimension (3D) stacked-die semiconductor package. Reducing the copper thickness is understood to present various thermal and reliability failure mode and mechanisms, such as die cracking and delamination. However, no in-depth study has been pursued in order to determine the capability of achieving the product requirements in terms of thermal and reliability in a 3D stacked-die package. The drive towards a Die-Free Package Cost (DFPC) reduction has led the authors to study the used of a thin leadframe in a QFN 3D stacked-die. Hence, the work presents basis for the qualification of a thin leadframe design and also to demonstrate the thermal and reliability performance. Finally, an extensive virtual thermal-mechanical prototyping has to be achieved in order to understand the physics of materials during the assembly and reliability testing of a 3D stacked-die package with a thin leadframe. This design rule was found to be developed in order to prevent a die crack occurrence between die and leadframe in the semiconductor package.
  Miloud Souiyah , A. Muchtar , Abdulnaser Alshoaibi and A.K. Ariffin
  Problem statement: The use of fracture mechanics techniques in the assessment of performance and reliability of structure is on increase and the prediction of crack propagation in structure play important part. The finite element method is widely used for the evaluation of SIF for various types of crack configurations. Source code program of two-dimensional finite element model had been developed, to demonstrate the capability and its limitations, in predicting the crack propagation trajectory and the SIF values under linear elastic fracture analysis.
Approach:Two different geometries were used on this finite element model in order, to analyze the reliability of this program on the crack propagation in linear and nonlinear elastic fracture mechanics. These geometries were namely; a rectangular plate with crack emanating from square-hole and Double Edge Notched Plate (DENT). Where, both geometries are in tensile loading and under mode I conditions. In addition, the source code program of this model was written by FORTRAN language. Therefore, a Displacement Extrapolation Technique (DET) was employed particularly, to predict the crack propagations directions and to, calculate the Stress Intensity Factors (SIFs). Furthermore, the mesh for the finite elements was the unstructured type; generated using the advancing front method. And, the global h-type adaptive mesh was adopted based on the norm stress error estimator. While, the quarter-point singular elements were uniformly generated around the crack tip in the form of a rosette. Moreover, make a comparison between this current study with other relevant and published research study.
Results: The application of the source code program of 2-D finite element model showed a significant result on linear elastic fracture mechanics. Based on the findings of the two different geometries from the current study, the result showed a good agreement. And, it seems like very close compare to the other published results.
A developed a source program of finite element model showed that is capable of demonstrating the SIF evaluation and the crack path direction satisfactorily. Therefore, the numerical finite element analysis with displacement extrapolation method, had been successfully employed for linear-elastic fracture mechanics problems.

  A.S.M.Z. Hasan , R. Hamid , A.K. Ariffin and R. Gani
  Dynamic behavior of concrete specimen can be studied using experimental method such as Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar Test. This test is tedious to conduct and costly too. However, it can be simulated by using finite element method. This study investigated the dynamic behavior of concrete based on finite element method under high strain rate. The dynamic stress-strain behavior for cylindrical concrete specimen is studied with 36 mm diameter and 36 mm length under the strain rate of 350, 500 and 700 sec-1, respectively. The results indicate that the peak stress of cylindrical concrete specimen increase with the increase of strain rate. The peak stresses are found 28.6, 39.9 and 76.3 MPa at ultimate strain of the values of 0.0055, 0.0077 and 0.011 under the stress rate 350, 500 and 700 sec-1, respectively. The highest concentrations of stresses are found at the center of the concrete specimen under the stress rate 350 and 500 sec-1 whereas, the highest concentration of stress is observed at the outer surface of concrete under the stress rate 700 sec-1. The comparative study shows that numerical results of present identification substantially agreed with the experimental results. Therefore, the numerical analysis can be widely used to identify the stress-strain behavior of concrete under the high strain rate. The significance of this study is to give the proper guideline for the selection of concrete model for stress-strain analysis of normal strength concrete under high strain rate.
  S. Abdullah , N.A. Al-Asady , A.K. Ariffin and M.M. Rahman
  This research describes the majority of interesting findings in the use of the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) based fatigue for automotive components in a form of review write-up. Thus, the theoretical background related to the fatigue life prediction using FEA is presented which is the main subject of this research. The challenge for FEA-based software developers is to deliver reliable fatigue-analysis tools because over designing components is no longer a viable option. Combination between a fatigue model based on the crack initiation, the crack growth and the crack closures are performed with consideration of cycle sequence effect together with finite element results, which lead to the prediction of fatigue life under spectrum or service loadings.
  M.M. Rahman , A.K. Ariffin , M.R.M. Rejab , K. Kadirgama and M.M. Noor
  This study was presented the assessment of multiaxial fatigue criteria of cylinder head for a free piston linear engine using finite element analysis techniques. The structural solid modeling of cylinder head was developed utilizing the computer-aided design software. The finite element modeling and analysis were performed utilizing the finite element analysis codes. The biaxiality analysis was performed to assess the multiaxial fatigue. The material parameter and Hoffmann-Seeger methods were considered to modify the uniaxial material properties. Prediction of fatigue life, effect of the stress combination for the proportional loading condition was investigated in this study. It can be seen that the biaxiality correction method gives conservative predicted life as compared to the uniaxial loading. The materials parameter correction method gives most conservative prediction with SWT criteria. It is also observed that more conservative prediction to use Signed Tresca parameter and Signed von Mises stress gives the result that lie between the absolute maximum principal and signed Tresca results. This approach shows to be quite suitable for integration with a commercial finite element code to provide for an integrated design environment for fatigue life evaluation under general multiaxial loading conditions.
  M.M. Rahman , A.K. Ariffin , N. Jamaludin , S. Abdullah and M.M. Noor
  This study presents the finite element based fatigue life prediction of a new free piston linear generator engine mounting. The objective of this research is to assess the critical fatigue locations on the component due to loading conditions. The effects of mean stress and probabilistic nature on the fatigue life are also investigated. Materials SAE 1045-450-QT and SAE 1045-595-QT are considered in this study. The finite element modeling and analysis was performed using computer-aided design and finite element analysis codes. In addition, the fatigue life prediction was carried out utilizing the finite element based fatigue code. Total-life approach and crack initiation approach were applied to predict the fatigue life of the free piston linear engine mounting. The results show the contour plots of fatigue life and damage histogram at the most damaging case. The comparison between the total-life approach and crack initiation approach were investigated. From the results, it can be concluded that Morrow mean stress correction method gives the most conservative (less life) results for crack initiation method. It can be seen that SAE 1045-595-QT material gives consistently higher life than SAE 1045-450-QT material for all loading conditions for both methods.
  S. Abdullah , S.M. Beden , A.K. Ariffin and M.M. Rahman
  This study presents an analysis technique to asses the fatigue life of a shell structure under variable amplitude loadings (VAL). For this purpose, the finite element analysis technique was used for the simulation works. The life prediction results are useful for improving the component design methodology at the early developing stage especially for shell structures such as a pressure vessels or pipelines analysis. The fatigue life prediction was performed using the finite element based fatigue analysis codes. In addition the ability of stress-life (S-N) and strain-life (ε-N) approaches to correlate and predict life are examined according to the different damage and failure rules. Numerical life prediction results (S-N and ε-N) of shells under VAL, as well as Constant Amplitude Loading (CAL) are presented and discussed. The effect of the mean stress, surface finish and the shell thickness are studied and discussed as apart of the interactions between geometries, loadings and materials. The simulation results showed that more studies on the shell structure need to be performed in order to obtain more accurate fatigue life.
  S. Abdullah , E. Adril , A. Muchtar and A.K. Ariffin
  In order to combat dry lubrication occurred in the combustion chamber of a compressed natural gas direct injection engine, the piston or piston rings have to be equipped with measures to address this boundary lubrication issue. Hence, the aim of the study is to address the issue which can minimize sliding friction in the combustion chamber between the piston ring and the cylinder liner. To solve this problem, the wear resistance level toward friction for piston ring during its interaction with the cylinder liner was enhanced using diffusion coating technique. The piston ring is made of ASSAB DF-3 steel and several substances such as 0.9% carbon (C), 0.85% chromium (Cr), 96.6% ferric (Fe), 1.2% manganese (Mn) and 0.55% titanium. The chemical substance which is used for the diffusion process are the mixture of three substances i.e., chromium, ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3). The piston ring together with the chromium mixtures were heated at different periods of time. In order to improve friction and wear, the piston ring which is coated with 99.5% chromium dust using a diffusion coating technique yields higher hardness compared to the original piston ring due to its resistance toward wear. The hardness depends on the time maintained during heating. Furthermore, it was also shown that the modified piston ring led to better reduction in coefficient of friction as well as less weight loss due to wear. These characteristics can result in better endurance during engine operation and prevent damage due to lubrication failure.
  N.H. Mohamad Nor , N. Muhamad , A.K. Ariffin , M. Ruzi , K.R. Jamaludin and A. Sufizar
  This paper outlines the optimization the process of injection molding parameters for feedstock of titanium alloy powder and palm stearin binder using grey relational analysis method. A Grey Relational Grade (GRG) obtained from the Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) is used to solve the injection molding operations with the multiple performance characteristic. The L27 (313) of orthogonal array of Taguchi method were performed. Defects, strength and density are important characteristics in determine the quality of the green part. Using these characteristics, the injection pressure, injection temperature, powder loading, mold temperature, holding pressure and injection speed are optimized in the study. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the injection temperature has the highest contribution to the quality of green part followed by injection pressure, powder loading, mold temperature, injection rate and holding pressure.
  M.H. Nahi , A. Ismail and A.K. Ariffin
  Tire-pavement contact stress is traditionally assumed to be uniformly distributed over a circular contact area. In this study, the tire-pavement contact pressure has been modeled to be nonuniform. A new tire model is developed for the analysis based on the geometry of the tire footprint because the contact area between the tire and the pavement is not exactly rectangular or circular. The objective of this study is to develop a finite element model based on viscoplastic theory for simulating the laboratory testing of asphalt mixes in Hamburg Wheel Rut Tester (HWRT) for rutting and to model in-situ pavement performance. The creep parameters C1, C2 and C2 are developed from the triaxial repeated load creep test at 50°C and at frequency of 1 Hz. Viscoplastic model (creep model) is adopted and a commercially available Finite Element (FE) program, ANSYS, is used in this study, in order to predict the rutting for in-situ pavement under nonuniform contact pressure. In the simulation, the used element has an eight-node with a three degrees of freedom per node translations in the nodal x, y and z directions. Dual wheel system of a standard axle load of 80 kN is used in the 2D pavement in-situ performance analysis. Reasonable agreement has been obtained between the predicted rut depths and the measured one. Moreover, it is found that creep model parameter C1, strongly influences rutting than the parameter C3. Finally it can be concluded that creep model based on finite element method can be used as an effective tools to analyze rutting of asphalt pavements.
  M.M. Rahman , A.K. Ariffin , S. Abdullah , M.M. Noor , R.A. Bakar and M.A. Maleque
  This study describes the finite element based fatigue life prediction of cylinder head for a two-stroke free piston linear engine subjected to variable amplitude loading, applicable to electric power generation. A set of aluminum alloys, cast iron and forged steel for cylinder head are considered in this study. The finite element modeling and analysis were performed utilizing the finite element analysis codes. The fatigue life analysis was carried out using finite element based fatigue analysis commercial codes. Fatigue stress-life approach was used when the piston is subjected to variable amplitude at different loading conditions. The effects of mean stress and sensitivity analysis on fatigue life are discussed. From the results, it was shown that the Goodman mean stress correction method is predicted more conservative (minimum life) results. It was found to differ significantly the compressive and tensile mean stresses. The compressive mean stress are beneficial however tensile mean stress detrimental to the fatigue life. The effect of materials and components S-N was also investigated and not found to give any large advantages, however the effect of certainty of survival was found to give noticeable advantages and it concluded that the 99.9% are fond to be design criteria. The proposed technique is capable of determining premature products failure phenomena.
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