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Articles by A.J. Cowieson
Total Records ( 2 ) for A.J. Cowieson
  M.M. Bhuiyan , F. Islam , A.J. Cowieson and P.A. Iji
  The aim of the present study was to evaluate the nutritional quality of traditional sun-dried maize grain, subjected to further heat treatment. The maize grains were obtained from three different locations, namely Moree in NSW, Emerald in QLD and Darling-Downs on the NSW-QLD border, Australia. Once received, one batch (sun-dried) was assessed without further drying. The other two batches from each source were dried artificially using a forced draught-oven at 105°C for 30 min or 24 h. The morphological structures (starch granules) of grains were changed due to heat-treatment for 30 min at 105°C and far-reaching structural changes occurred when samples were heated for 24 h. Proximate analysis of maize revealed that the DM (897.3-967.4 g kg-1), CP (92.1-108.7 g kg-1), EE (49.0-57.5 g kg-1), phytate-P (1.2-2.4 g kg-1) and ash (14.1-19.7 g kg-1) contents of samples varied due to source and heating period. The starch, amylose, available amino acid and mineral contents increased with increasing heating duration. Variable anomeric proton peaks (1H-NMR) were found with an increase in the oven drying period in all maize samples. In vitro digestibility of DM, starch and CP was improved due to heat-treatment at 105°C for 30 min 24 h. It may be concluded that the chemical composition, ultra-structural characteristics and energy values of maize samples varied by source and were changed through heating of low-moisture maize over varying time periods. These changes could impact on the nutritive value of the grains and animal performance.
  M.M. Bhuiyan , F. Islam , A.J. Cowieson and P.A. Iji
  In a 2x2x3 factorial study, the effect of milling technique (hammer vs. roller) with differing particle sizes (fine or coarse) of maize from three sources (Downs, Emerald or Moree) on growth performance, ileal digestibility and intestinal microbial profiles of broiler chickens (from 1-21 days post-hatch) was investigated. A total of 420 day-old male Cobb chicks were randomly allocated to 12 treatments of 5 replicates (seven birds per replicate) in brooder cages set up in an environmentally controlled room. The maize grain was finely ground using a hammer mill or roller mill with a 2 mm screen or coarsely ground through a 4 mm screen. Feed intake up to 7 days of age was higher (p<0.003) on the diet containing finely roller-milled grain than on the coarsely milled grain but no effect found on d21. Live weight was affected by the source of maize (p<0.04). The FCR to d21 was improved (p<0.042) on the Moree maize that was finely roller milled. The relative weight of proventriculus plus gizzard (p<0.01) and liver (p<0.01) were higher in diets containing coarsely milled grain than finely milled grain at 7 but not 21 days. Nutrient digestibility was affected due to maize source (p<0.01) and particle size reduction (p<0.01). These results suggest that fine grinding some sources of maize would be beneficial in terms of improvement in FI, LW and weight of proventriculus and gizzard in early ages as well as nutrient digestibility at a later age.
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