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Articles by A.D. Wolfenden
Total Records ( 6 ) for A.D. Wolfenden
  A.D. Wolfenden , J.L. Vicente , L.R. Bielke , C.M. Pixley , S.E. Higgins , D.J. Donoghue , A.M. Donoghue , B.M. Hargis and G. Tellez
  Effective Competitive Exclusion (CE) cultures have been shown to accelerate development of normal microflora in chicks and poults, providing increased resistance to infection by some enteric bacterial pathogens. Our objective was to develop a CE culture for prophylaxis and reduced horizontal transmission of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) in broiler chickens. In the present study, seven members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and 2 lactic acid bacteria isolates, each capable of in vitro and in vivo inhibition of SE, were selected and combined to form the putative CE culture. In the first experiment, day-of-hatch chicks were randomly divided into four pens. All treated chicks were orally gavaged with the CE culture and 3 pens were treated with the CE culture in the drinking water for four consecutive days. Treated and control-non treated chicks were challenged with SE on day 4. All 3 groups of birds that were treated with the CE culture had a significant decrease (p<0.05) in cecal colonization compared with non-CE-treated SE-challenged chicks. Two additional experiments were designed to measure the efficacy of the CE culture in reducing SE horizontal transmission from infected to uninfected chicks when commingled. SE was recovered in the cecal tonsils with a significantly lower incidence at days 7 and 14 in Experiment 2 and day 7 in Experiment 3 from the groups that received the CE in the drinking water as compared to controls respectively. These results suggest that a relatively simple and defined CE culture can reduce SE colonization in neonatal chicks.
  A.D. Wolfenden , C.M. Pixley , J.P. Higgins , S.E. Higgins , B.M. Hargis , G. Tellez , J.L. Vicente and A. Torres-Rodriguez
  Spray application offers low-cost and efficient application of biologic and reduced concerns regarding diverse water quality and medicator/proportioner function. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the spray application of a Lactobacillus-based probiotic on Salmonella enteritidis (SE) colonization in broiler chickens. Day-of-hatch chicks were challenged with Salmonella enteritidis (SE) by oral gavage alone, challenged with SE and treated by coarse spray application of a commercially-availably Lactic-acid bacterial probiotic (FM-B11™), or challenged with SE and treated with B11 continuously in the Drinking Water (DW). Five days post-challenge, cecal tonsils were collected for presence or absence of SE. In Exp. 1, probiotic treatment by either spray or DW application significantly (p<0.05) reduced SE recovery (55% and 50% respectively; controls 85%) when chicks were held for 8h prior to challenge and placement. Similarly, when probiotic spray treatment or water treatment and challenge occurred simultaneously, with placement 8h after treatment, a marked and significant reduction of SE recovery was noted after 5d (10% and 40% respectively, controls 55%). In Exp. 2, when probiotic spray treatment and challenge occurred simultaneously, with placement 8h after treatment, a significant reduction of SE recovery was again noted in both the spray and DW application (80% controls, 15% spray, 15% DW). Taken together, these results suggest that spray application of B11, when performed in the manner described above, can be effective for protection of chicks against Salmonella infection.
  A.D. Wolfenden , C. Pixley , B.M. Hargis , G. Tellez , J.L. Vicente and L. Avina
  In poultry and other species, economic losses during transport are due to mortality, carcass shrinkage (carcass dehydration) and carcass condemnation. Feed Withdrawal (FW) prior to processing is necessary to reduce fecal ingesta contamination of carcasses during processing. Direct acidification of the water with specific concentrations of some Organic Acids (OA) has been shown to significantly reduce the amount of potential pathogens such as Salmonella on the carcasses by antemortem disinfection of the crops when used during the pre-slaughter feed withdrawal period. However, reduced water consumption due to effective OA concentrations have been shown to increase carcass shrink. In the present study, the effect of a commercially available mix of flavored organic acids significantly reduced carcass condemnation at the processing plant in 3/3 trials (p<0.05) % and mortality during transportation in 1/3 trials (0.40% treated vs. 0.65% control). A consistent improvement of average body weights at the farm and at the processing plant due to reduction of carcass shrinkage and condemnation at the processing plant were also observed in the treated marked age broiler chickens. Water intake was numerically higher in treated birds when compared with non-treated birds (72.9 mL vs. 62.5 mL). During FW, this OA product could be useful to reduce mortality, shrinkage and carcass condemnation during transportation to the processing plant of broiler chickens.
  R.E. Wolfenden , N.R. Pumford , M.J. Morgan , S. Shivaramaiah , A.D. Wolfenden , G. Tellez and B.M. Hargis
  Bacillus-based direct-fed microbials may be an effective alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. Environmental samples were pasteurized to remove vegetative cells, plated onto TSA or SPA for 24 or 72 h and overlayed with soft agar containing S. enteritidis or C. perfringens. Isolates which produced antimicrobial activity against both pathogens were used to inoculate a solid state fermentation media and allowed to sporulate, to numbers greater than 109 spores/g and subjected to in vivo testing in both poults and chicks. In exp. 1 chicks fed isolates PHL-RW35 and PHL-RW41, at doses of 107 and 105 spores/g feed respectively, showed significant increases (p<0.05) in both Body Weight (BW) and Body Weight Gain (BWG). No significant differences in BW or BWG were noted in poults for any treatment. In this experiment, all groups were challenged with 105 cfu of S. typhimurium at day-of-hatch, no significant differences in Salmonella were noted between groups. In experiment 2 PHL-RW41 fed at 105 spores/g of feed significantly increased BWG by 8.3 and 11.7% in chicks and poults respectively. Isolate PHL-RW35 also increased BW and BWG in poults. These data indicate this approach for in vitro selection may be effective for screening and selection of Bacillus direct-fed microbials capable of causing an increase in BW and BWG in commercial poultry.
  C. Pixley , J. Barton , J.L. Vicente , A.D. Wolfenden , B.M. Hargis and G. Tellez
  The transport of live animals has important economic and welfare implications. A commercially-available organic acid product (Optimizer) was added to the drinking water of commercial hen turkeys during preslaughter Feed Withdrawal (FW) in two trials. In trial 1, a total of 60 trailers from treated (OA) or control non-treated turkey houses were evaluated. Turkey farmers initiated water treatment on the day before pick up (8-12 h treatment according to label directions). Investigators recorded trailer numbers as they were loaded out of each house to confirm which trailers contained treated birds vs. control non-treated birds. Individual trailer weights were recorded upon arrival to the processing plant and again immediately prior to live hang. A significant reduction in rate of weight loss during holding at the processing plant was observed in the treated turkeys (719 g/min per OA treated trailer vs. 845 g/min per control trailer). In trial 2, two commercial market age turkey houses were selected and in each house, 400 birds were weighed and recorded as a representative sampling. The treated house received OA administered according to manufacturer’s directions continuously for 19 h. At the end of this time, 400 birds were weighed and recorded as a representative sampling. A significant (p<0.05) improvement of average body weights was observed in treated turkeys during 19 h (125 g treated vs. 35 g control), an average of 90 grams difference. Experiments are ongoing to measure water consumption during the FW that may explain the reduction in carcass shrinkage during transportation to the processing plant and increased body weights at the farm by increasing hydration of turkeys treated with OA.
  A.R. Reginatto , A. Menconi , A. Londero , M. Lovato , A. Pires Rosa , S. Shivaramaiah , A.D. Wolfenden , W.E. Huff , G.R. Huff , N.C. Rath , A.M. Donoghue , B.M. Hargis and G. Tellez
  The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 0.2% dietary Aspergillus Meal (AM) on performance and bone parameters of neonatal turkey poults. A total of 200 day-of-hatch turkey poults were used for this experiment. Two dietary treatments, similar in energy and protein content differing only by the addition of 0.2% AM, were used. Poults were divided into 2 treatment groups with 25 birds per treatment and four replicates each. Group 1 received a basal non medicated control diet and group 2 received dietary AM. At the end of 30 d, poults were weighed, euthanized and tibias were collected to evaluate bone quality using an Instron shear press machine and bone parameters such as tibia weight, diameter, ash, calcium and phosphorus assays. Samples of distal ileum were collected and the content subjected to protein and energy analysis. Poults fed with dietary AM had a significant improvement in BW and feed conversion ratios (p<0.05). Distal ileum content showed significantly less concentration of energy and protein when compared with the poults receiving control diet. Tibia weight, diameter, breaking strength, ash, calcium and phosphorus were significantly higher in poults that received dietary AM prebiotic. These results suggest that the increase in performance and bone parameters in neonatal turkey poults fed with 0.2% AM, is improved upon feeding Aspergillus niger mycelium prebiotic.
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