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Articles by A.C.C. Egbuonu
Total Records ( 8 ) for A.C.C. Egbuonu
  A.C.C. Egbuonu , D.C. Nzewi and O.N.C. Egbuonu
  Processing method influences the functional compositions and utilization of foods. This study investigated the effect of soaking in water over time prior to the traditional method of drying and milling on some functional properties of bitter yam flour. Four equal parts of cleaned, peeled and sliced bitter yam tubers were respectively soaked in clean water for 6, 12, 18 and 24 h, dewatered, oven-dried at 50°C and milled, using standard procedures. The peak effect was recorded in the sample soaked for 24 h which increased respectively to 0.55±0.00 and 6.12±0.01% for bulk density and pH value. This represented a relative increase by 1.85 and 2.68%, respectively. Sample soaked for 24 h recorded a decrease in the water absorption capacity (3.01±0.01d%), oil absorption capacity (1.39±1.20d%), swelling index (3.20±0.01d%) and foam capacity (16.48±0.09d%). This represented a relative decrease of 4.14, 35.94, 1.23 and 6.09%, respectively. The observation, apart from that on the bulk density, was significant (p<0.05) and time dependent, indicating that soaking in water modified these properties of the bitter yam flour irrespective of the soaking time. The study provides insight on the possible application of soaking in clean water to optimize the studied functional compositions of bitter yam flour.
  A.C.C. Egbuonu , C.A. Ezeokonkwo , P.M. Ejikeme , O. Obidoa and L.U.S. Ezeanyika
  The present study is aimed at substantiating whether monosodium glutamate, MSG, could induce toxic effects at an appreciably lower dose and to examine the possible role of arginine, ARG, on such MSG-induced effects. Thus, MSG at a dose of 5 mg kg-1 body weight was administered to adult male Wistar rats by oral intubation. Treatment was daily and lasted for 28 days. The MSG treatment significantly (p<0.05) decreased the serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity (71.97%) but increased the activities of the serum total acid phosphatase (TAP) (6222.80%) and the serum Aspartate Amino Transferase (AST) (66.86%) and the serum aspartate aminotransferase-to-alanine aminotransferase (AST-to-ALT) ratio (56.59%). Arginine (ARG) (20 mg kg-1 b.wt.) co-administered with MSG significantly (p<0.05) decreased the serum Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) activity (90.47%) representing a decrease of only 18.50% relative to the MSG-treatment alone, but increased the serum Total Acid Phosphatase (TAP) activity (11119.27%), the serum Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) activity (133.35%) and the serum aspartate aminotransferase-to-alanine aminotransferase (AST-to-ALT) ratio (147.25%). The results showed that MSG at a dose of 5 mg kg-1 b.wt. probably affected the synthesis of the above enzymes and that ARG at 20 mg kg-1 b.wt. potentiated the MSG-induced effects. Thus, ARG at 20 mg kg-1 b.wt. may significantly exacerbate the possible MSG-induced adverse effect on the prostate and major organs with high metabolic activities especially the liver.
  A.C.C. Egbuonu , R.G. Aguguesi , R. Samuel , O. Ojunkwu , F. Onyenmeri and U. Uzuegbu
  Increasing the dietary and industrial utilization of food wastes could ultimately improve the environment. Thus, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seed oil, extracted with petroleum ether (boiling range 60-80°C for 8 h) using Soxhlet extractor and separated from the solvent with a rotary evaporator was studied, using standard protocols. Result of the study showed these properties of the seed oil viz: specific gravity (0.87), color (light yellow), pH (4.9) and texture at 37°C (liquid). The peroxide value (2.80 meq kg-1) of the watermelon seed oil was lower than 10 meq kg-1 required for the standard oils. The saponification value (205.3 mg KOH g-1) of the watermelon seed oil compared with the range for the standard oils (except that for coconut oil). The iodine value (28.51 g/100 g) was lower than the values for standard oils (except that for coconut oil). However, the acid value (6.10 mg KOH g-1) and the free fatty acid value (4.61 mg KOH g-1) of the oil sample were higher than the corresponding value for the standard oils. The watermelon seed oil properties compared fairly with that of the standard edible and industrial oil sources, suggesting its stability, edibility and industrial potentials. However, the comparatively high acid and free fatty acid values, supported by the low pH value could compromise the watermelon seed oil qualities and benefits. Further studies aimed at reducing the high acid and free fatty acid values of the oil sample could enhance the potential uses of the seed oil and reduce the attendant environment burden of the watermelon seed, hence are warranted.
  A.C.C. Egbuonu and L.U.S. Ezeanyika
  Metabolic syndrome (Mes) was associated with insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. In particular, endothelial dysfunction was associated with a significant reduction in nitric oxide, a metabolite of L-arginine (Arg). Insulin resistance occurs following the failure of insulin to maintain glucose balance or regulate appetite via signaling in the brain. Thus, this study investigated the influence of Arg on some biochemical markers of Mes associated with the brain function and on the brain histology of female Wistar rats. Two groups of rats (n = 8) were exposed to a single dose of 60 mg kg-1 b.wt. of Arg and 3 ml kg-1 b.wt. of distilled water respectively as treated and control groups. Exposure was per oral (p.o) for twenty eight consecutive days. Exposure to Arg evoked a significant increase (p<0.01) in aspartate amino transferase (AST) activity (24.95±0.10 IU L-1) and ammonium ion (NH4+) concentration (39.58±0.16 μg mL-1) in the rats’ serum. It increased (p<0.01) the aspartate amino transferase to alanine amino transferase (AST:ALT) ratio (0.37±0.01) of the rats. Brain section of Arg-treated rats revealed degeneration, characterized by necrosis, oedema and reduction of astrocytes. AST:ALT ratio had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.01) with AST activity and NH4+ concentration. The results suggest Arg-induced adverse influence on the studied markers of Mes associated with the brain function. Hence, exposure to Arg may impair the brain function and possibly, worsen Mes related to brain function of the rats.
  A.C.C. Egbuonu , A.E. Ogbu and L.U.S. Ezeanyika
  The study aimed to ascertain the effect of esculetin (Esc) on some liver and prostate function markers of male Wistar rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 6). Groups A, B and C were administered with 6.0, 12.0 and 24.0 mg kg-1 b.wt. of esculetin, respectively. Groups D and E were administered with 0.2 mL of the vehicle control (10% Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO)) and 0.2 mL of the normal control (distilled water (DW)), respectively. Administration was per oral after every 24 h for 28 days. On comparison with the controls, serum enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), activities of the esculetin-fed rats decreased in a dose dependent manner. The decrease was significant (p<0.05) except that of ALP activity (79.12±11.82 IU L-1) that was not significant (p>0.05) at the 6.0 mg kg-1 dose level. Esculetin exposure in the rats induced a dose dependent decrease in Total Acid Phosphatase (TACP) and Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PACP) activities of the rats serum. However, the decrease was not significant (p>0.05) except that of PACP activity (0.76±0.28 IU L-1) that decreased sgnificantly (p<0.05) in the group treated with 24 mg kg-1 b.wt. of esculetin. The results of this study suggest that esculetin caused a dose dependent improvement of these markers. Thus, repeated exposure to esculetin may not impair the functional capacity of the associated organs, particularly the liver and prostate, of the male rats, irrespective of dose.
  A.C.C. Egbuonu , L.U.S. Ezeanyika and I.I. Ijeh
  Metabolic Syndrome (MES), a cluster of metabolic disorders, is pandemic and more prevalent in females. It was associated with inflammation, liver damage and reduced nitric oxide concentration. Since L-arginine (ARG) may enhance nitric oxide synthesis, this study investigated the effect of ARG on the liver histology and selected serum markers of MES related to inflammation and liver damage. Two groups (n = 8) of female Wistar albino rats were exposed to 60 mg kg-1 b. wt. of ARG and 3 mL kg-1 b.wt. of distilled water, respectively as treated and control groups. Per oral exposure to ARG for twenty eight days caused a non-significant increase (p>0.05) in the neutrophils count (22.50±10.35%, representing 38.46%) but a decrease (p>0.05) in the lymphocytes count (77.50±10.35%, representing 8.82%) and in the total bilirubin concentration (0.40±0.19 mg/100 mL, representing 52.38%) of the rats, suggesting non-treatment related influence on these parameters. However, the exposure elicited a significant decrease (p<0.01) in the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity (66.47±0.37 IU L-1, representing 18.55%) and in the total White Blood Cell (WBC) count (2.73±0.75x109 L-1, representing 43.24%), suggesting absence of inflammation and liver damage. ALT had a significant positive correlation with WBC (r = 0.01), while the liver histology revealed possible benefit in the ARG-fed rats, seeminlgly confirming benefit on these markers of inflammation and liver damage that could improve related MES features in the rats. Further studies using ARG rich nuts are required to harness insight gained from this study.
  A.C.C. Egbuonu , L.U.S. Ezeanyika , P.M. Ejikeme and O. Obidoa
  Adult male Wistar rats were fed with arginine (ARG) (60 mg kg¯1 b.wt.), glutamate (GLU) (90 mg kg¯1 b.wt.), monosodium glutamate (MSG) (15 mg kg¯1 b.wt.), ARG+GLU (60:90 mg kg¯1 b.wt.) or ARG+MSG (60:15 mg kg¯1 b.wt.). The feeding was by oral intubation and was daily for 28 days. The aim was to investigate possible alterations in the serum biochemistry and liver histology induced by ARG, GLU or MSG either alone or in such combinations as ARG+GLU or ARG+MSG. After 28 days oral treatment, rats treated with ARG, GLU or MSG alone significantly (p<0.05) increased the serum alkaline aminotransferase (ALT) activity, whereas rats co-treated with ARG and either GLU or MSG decreased (p<0.05) the serum ALT activity. In comparison with the control, the other treatment groups elicited a significant quantitative increase in the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity and the computed AST:ALT ratio but, the observed increase in the ARG-treated group was consistently lower relative to the other groups. Liver sections of rats from the various treatment groups showed varying degrees of focally diffuse (random) hepatocellular necrosis. On the whole, the study suggests that sub-acute daily oral treatment of male Wistar rats with ARG, GLU or MSG alone or ARG together with GLU or MSG could possibly impair their physiological functions as evidenced in the significant alterations in the serum biochemistry and liver histology of this study. The results are considerably significant going by the possible inadvertent abuse of ARG, GLU and MSG alone or together in diets and drugs.
  A.C.C. Egbuonu and D.C. Nzewi
  The study investigated the effect of blanching prior to the traditional method of drying and milling on some functional properties of bitter yam flour. Seven equal parts of cleaned, peeled and sliced bitter yam tubers were respectively blanched in clean water (at 100°C) for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 min, dewatered, oven-dried at 50°C and milled, using standard protocols. The peak effect was recorded in the sample blanched for 18 min. The real value range and the peak value relative to the control showed a time independent and non-significant (p>0.05) decrease in the bulk density (0.55±0.00% to 0.54±0.03%; 1.82%). However, the decrease in the swelling index (3.24±0.00% to 2.94±0.10%; 9.26%), water absorption capacity (3.14±0.00% to 2.64±0.02%; 15.92%), oil absorption capacity (2.17±0.01% to 1.93±0.01%; 11.06%) and foam capacity (17.55±0.08% to 16.20±0.01%; 7.69%) and the increase in the pH (5.96±0.01% to 6.20±0.01%; 4.02%) were time dependent and significant (p<0.05). Thus, blanching as in this study, irrespective of time, significantly reduced most of the functionalities of the resultant bitter yam flour. As discussed, the results may imply that the resultant bitter yam flour could be less acidic, less toxic and less bitter but may neither bulk up nor interact, especially with protein. These warrant further studies, especially on the sensory evaluation and toxic potential of the resultant bitter yam flour.
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