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Articles by A.C. Ezike
Total Records ( 2 ) for A.C. Ezike
  C.S. Nworu , P.A. Akah , O.O. Ndu , A.C. Ezike and N.I. Onyekwelu
  This study was conducted to determine the effects of concomitant administration of oral co-trimoxazole (120 mg kg 1) and zidovudine (30 mg kg 1) on their respective pharmacokinetics profiles in adult rabbits. The study was conducted in three phases, each separated from the other by a 2-week drug wash-out period. In the first phase, the animals received zidovudine (30 mg kg 1, p.o.) alone; in the second phase, they received co-trimoxazole (120 mg kg 1, p.o.) alone and in the third phase, both Zidovudine (30 mg kg 1, p.o.) and co-trimoxazole (120 mg kg 1, p.o.) were given concomitantly. Blood samples were withdrawn at intervals for 24 h and analysed for drug content. The concomitant administration of AZT and co-trimoxazole resulted in a non-significant (p>0.05) increase in peak plasma concentration, Area under Curve (AUC) and half-life (t1/2) of AZT and a decrease in the elimination rate constant, absorption rate constant, clearance and apparent volume of distribution of AZT. The peak plasma concentrations of zidovudine (876.9232.29 g mL 1), sulphamethoxazole (0.3490.007 g mL 1) and trimethoprim (0.6440.015 g mL 1) attained were increased non-significantly by 2.3, 9.17 and 5.59%, respectively. The apparent increase in serum concentration of co-trimoxazole, though not significant, resulted in a remarkable increase in the Reciprocal of Serum Inhibitory Titres (RSIT) against B. subtilis of up to 83.47% at the 2 h interval.The result of this study, suggests that co-trimoxazole does not cause major alterations in AZT pharmacokinetics in rabbits. In clinical practice, we could therefore infer that routine dosage adjustment may not be necessary when these 2 drugs are used concomitantly except in patients with co-existing hepatic or renal impairment where the risk of neutropaenia could be a major concern.
  P.A. Akah, , O. Nnaeto , C.S. Nworu and A.C. Ezike
  The methanol and the n-hexane leaf extracts of Napoleona vogelli (Lecythidaceae) were investigated for antiulcer properties using 3 experimental ulcer models induced by ethanol, indomethacin and hypothermic- restraint stress in rats. Anti-ulcer related properties of the extract such as gastrointestinal transit, the activity on isolated gut tissue preparations and the antimicrobial activities were also determined. Ethanol-induced ulcer was significantly (p< 0.05) protected by HE (200 and 400 mg kg 1) and by ME (800 mg kg 1).The extracts ME (400 and 800 mg kg 1) and HE (200 and 400 mg kg 1) showed significant and dose-related (p< 0.05) protection of the rats against indomethacin-induced ulcers. The stress ulcer was not protected by the administration of ME (200, 400 and 800 mg kg 1), but was significantly (p< 0.05) protected by HE at 400 mg kg 1. The extracts appear to exhibit better protection against indomethacin and ethanol-induced ulcers than against the stress ulcer. Gastrointestinal propulsion in mice was significantly (p< 0.05) reduced, in a dose-dependent manner by the methanol extract an n-hexane fraction of N. vogelii. On the rabbit jejunum, ME and HE showed a concentration-dependent antispasmolytic effect and inhibited ACh-evoked contractile response with IC50 of 389.05 and 372.73 g mL 1, respectively. The extracts inhibited the growth of the bacteria used in the study but had no activity against the fungi tested. The ME showed better antibacterial activity than the HE. The methanol leaf extract administered orally up to 5000 mg kg 1 did not produce lethality or signs of acute toxicity in mice after 24 h. Flavonoids, tannins, saponins, carbohydrate, terpenes, resins, steroids and alkaloids were found present in the extracts of N. vogelii. Gastro-protection and antispasmodic mechanisms could be responsible for the anti-ulcer properties of this plant.
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