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Articles by A.C. Beynen
Total Records ( 17 ) for A.C. Beynen
  K.-W. Lee , H. Everts , H.J. Kappert , H. Wouterse , M. Frehner and A.C. Beynen
  The question addressed was whether dietary essential oils could antagonize the negative effect of Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) on growth performance in broilers. Diets without or with 1% CMC, and CMC containing diet with either 100 ppm thymol, cinnamaldehyde or a commercial essential oil blend were fed to female broiler chickens for 40 days. Chicks receiving the CMC diet showed significantly depressed weight gain for the period of 0 - 21 days. Addition of cinnamaldehyde or commercial essential oil to the CMC diet partially counteracted the negative effect on growth performance. Group mean feed intake was lower in CMC-fed chicks, but was raised when cinnamaldehyde or the commercial oil was added to the diet. Intestinal viscosity was increased by CMC inclusion, but was not lowered by the additives. Fat digestibility was significantly reduced by CMC, but cinnamaldehyde or commercial oil inclusion partially reversed this effect. This study indicates that cinnamaldehyde, but not thymol, may antagonize the negative effects of CMC on growth performance which may relate to improving fat digestibility.
  K.-W. Lee , H. Everts , H.J. Kappert , J. Van Der Kuilen , A.G. Lemmens , M. Frehner and A.C. Beynen
  The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary essential oil components, i.e., thymol, cinnamaldehyde and a commercial blend of essential oil components (CRINA® Poultry) on growth performance, fat digestibility, intestinal viscosity and plasma cholesterol in female broiler chickens fed on a diet rich in rye. There were 5 dietary treatments: a diet containing corn, a diet with rye, the rye diet with 100 ppm thymol, the rye diet with 100 ppm cinnamaldehyde and the rye diet with 100 ppm CRINA® Poultry. Each treatment consisted of 3 cages with 5 birds per cage. Birds fed on the supplement-free diet containing rye instead of corn showed a significantly depressed daily weight gain between 1-14 days of age. The rye-induced suppression of weight gain between 1-14 days of age was partially overcome by the inclusion in the diet of cinnamaldehyde, but the effect failed to reach statistical significance. Birds fed on the diets with rye generally ate less than those fed on the corn diet. Cinnamaldehyde tended to increase voluntary feed intake. The water:feed ratio was increased by the feeding of rye, but the supplements had no effect. The viscosity of jejunal and ileal digesta were significantly elevated when the diet contained rye instead of corn, but there was no counteracting effect of the essential oil components. Fecal fat digestibility was significantly lowered in birds fed on the rye diet, but the supplements did not reverse this effect. Thus, it is concluded that cinnamaldehyde may counteract the antinutritional effect of rye, but without a simultaneous effect on intestinal viscosity or fat digestibility. Feeding rye instead of corn did not modulate plasma cholesterol. Cinnamaldehyde produced a significant increase in plasma cholesterol concentration.
  K.-W. Lee , H. Everts , H.J. Kappert and A.C. Beynen
  The question addressed was whether the essential oil components, carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde, would have an interactive effect with regard to growth performance. One-day old female broiler chickens were subjected to one of 5 dietary treatments for 21 days: a base diet as a negative control, the base diet with 1% Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), the CMC diet with 200 ppm carvacrol, the CMC diet with 200 ppm cinnamaldehyde and the CMC diet with 100 ppm carvacrol plus 100 ppm cinnamaldehyde. Group mean daily weight gain was 10% less in birds fed on the CMC diet when compared with those fed the CMC-free diet. Birds fed the CMC-containing diet with the blend of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde gained significantly less weight when compared with those fed on the CMC-free diet, the decrease in weight gain being 24%. The feeding of either carvacrol or cinnamaldehyde alone with the CMC-containing diet did not influence weight gain as opposed to the CMC control diet, but the combination of the two principles reduced group mean weight gain by 16%. The feeding of CMC caused hypertrophy of the small intestine, but the essential oil components had no further effect. No significant treatment differences were observed as to plasma lipid concentrations. The present data indicate that essential oil components can have interactive effects with respect to growth performance.
  F.J. Bavelaar and A.C. Beynen
  A literature survey was conducted to determine the relationship between plasma cholesterol concentrations and the severity of diet-induced atherosclerosis in pigeons, quails and chickens. A direct relationship was found between plasma cholesterol and atherosclerosis as induced by cholesterol feeding. In general, dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids versus saturated fatty acids lowered plasma cholesterol concentrations in the three avian species
  F.J. Bavelaar and A.C. Beynen
  The objective of this literature survey was to establish the relationships between fatty acid intake of hens and the fatty acid composition of their eggs. The content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) of egg yolk was not clearly influenced by alpha-linolenic acid intake, but there was a linear relationship with EPA intake albeit that the efficiency of incorporation was very low. Maximum egg yolk contents of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) of about 1.5% of total fatty acids were attained at a dietary alpha-linolenic acid concentration higher than 7% of total fatty acids. Dietary DHA was found to be efficiently incorporated into egg yolk. There were linear relationships between dietary alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid and their contents in egg total lipids. The relationships presented, including the regression equations, may assist in the diet-mediated steering of the fatty acid composition of eggs.
  F.J. Bavelaar , R. Hovenier , A.G. Lemmens and A.C. Beynen
  On the basis of a previous study in deceased parrots it was suggested that a high intake of alpha-linolenic acid might protect against the development of atherosclerosis. To test our suggestion, a feeding experiment was carried out with Japanese quail. Quails are known to develop atherosclerosis when cholesterol is added to the diet. During 80 days, four different diets were fed to groups of 17 or 18 quails. There was a control group that was fed a cholesterol-free diet and the three remaining groups were fed diets fortified with cholesterol. The experimental, cholesterol-rich diets were either rich in saturated fatty acids, linoleic or alpha-linolenic acid, the exchange of the fatty acids being the only variable. At the end of the experiment, blood was collected for determination of plasma lipids, the degree of atherosclerosis was scored and tissues were collected for fatty acid analyses. Addition of 2% cholesterol to the diet resulted in a two-fold increase of plasma cholesterol and a 10-fold increase in liver cholesterol. Cholesterol feeding induced plaque formation. No significant effect of alpha-linolenic acid versus either linoleic acid or saturated fatty acids (lauric plus myristic plus palmitic acid) was seen with regard to atherosclerosis and plasma cholesterol. The fatty acid composition of the diets was reflected in the tissue fatty acid composition, but there were significant differences between tissues. It is concluded that, under the conditions of this study, a differential effect on the development of atherosclerosis of alpha-linolenic acid, linoleic acid and saturated fatty acids could not be demonstrated.
  L.Q. Nguyen , T.Q. Vui , H.T. Hue , D.T. Hang and A.C. Beynen
  In an attempt to lower feed costs of small-holder broiler production in the area of Hue City, Central Vietnam, we replaced part of the commercial concentrate component of the diet by locally available wheat brewing by-product. There were three experimental diets containing either 5, 10 or 15% brewing by-product. The three diets were fed on five small-holder farms to groups of 20 broilers each. The results show that beer by-product enhanced growth and improved feed efficiency. Slaughter carcass traits and the weights of breast and drumstick were enhanced by the feeding of beer by-product. The inclusion of 10% beer by-product in the diet increased the antibody titre against Newcastle disease when the birds were aged 9 weeks, but not when they were aged either 4 or 12 weeks. It is concluded that substitution of brewers` wheat for part of the concentrate component can render broiler diets less expense and more efficient.
  K.-W. Lee , H. Everts and A.C. Beynen
  Based on literature data it can be concluded essential oils originating from plants have anti-microbial activity and have toxic effects in poultry only when administered at very high doses. Antioxidant activity and hypocholesterolemic effects have been reported in chickens. In various studies, but not all, a growth enhancing effect of essential oils has been found. The characteristic flavor of essential oils might play role in poultry performance, but this needs to be confirmed. Essential oils may stimulate the digestion process. It appears that individual compounds of an essential oil have a wide range of activities and may act in an additive, synergistic and antagonistic fashion. The effect of essential oils in poultry may not only be confined to the microflora, but may extend to animal metabolism. Knowing the activity and effects of individual compounds is useful to formulate mixtures of compounds so as to enhance efficacy. In conclusion, dietary essential oils may be used as alternatives to antibiotics, but whether their effects on growth performance are a consequence of anti-microbial activity needs to be studied further.
  A. Teguia , H.N.L. Endeley and A.C. Beynen
  Anack 180 broiler chickens, aged 7 weeks, were used in an experiment to determine the effect of replacement of maize by cocoa husks in a grower-finisher ration. Cocoa husks were substituted for the maize component in the ration (65 g maize/100 g of diet) at levels of either 0, 10, 20 or 30% of the maize. The birds fed the diet with the 10% substitution level showed significantly faster growth than the control animals whose growth rates were not significantly different from the birds fed the diet with 20% maize replacement. When compared with the control birds, low body weight and poor efficiency of feed utilization were observed for the birds fed the diet with 30% maize replacement. Cocoa husks are less expensive than maize, but cost analysis indicated that the feed cost per kg of live broiler was increased after incorporation of cocoa husks into the diet. It is concluded that cocoa husk might be used as an ingredient for poultry grower finisher diets, but various questions need to be addressed prior to practical application.
  R. Hovenier , A. Teguia and A.C. Beynen
  The idea tested was that a limiting provision of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) contributes to the poor growth performance of broilers kept on small holdings in Cameroon. The study had a cross-sectional design and involved 14 small-holder farms. The ALA and linoleic acid (LA) concentrations in the broilers` diets were determined and so were the contents of ALA and LA in adipose tissue collected from selected birds. When expressed as percentage in the whole diet, the LA content in the diets fed on the 14 farms varied between 1.64 and 3.81 % and that of ALA between 0.04 and 0.41%. There was a significant relationship between the relative percentage of ALA in the diet and that in the abdominal adipose tissue of the broilers. It was concluded that the LA supply was not limiting growth in the broilers. The ALA requirement of broilers is not known, but it might be in the order of 0.05 to 0.1 % of the dietary dry matter. If and when the ALA requirement is 0.05% of the diet, then the supply of ALA on at least one farm could have limited growth of the broilers. However, caution is warranted because the design of this study does not allow drawing conclusions as to cause-and-effect relations. Furthermore, on all farms growth rates were sub-optimal so that factors other than the ALA supply had limited growth. Absolute proof for a role of the ALA supply can only be obtained by controlled studies on the farms in which supplemental ALA is the only variable.
  M.A. Elmusharaf , V. Bautista , L. Nollet and A.C. Beynen
  The hypothesis tested was that the feeding of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) will suppress the signs of a coccidiosis infection in broilers. Two separate experiments were performed in which part of the broilers used were infected with Eimeria tenella. In each experiment there were three treatment groups: a negative control group fed the basal diet and two infected groups fed the basal diet without or with a commercial MOS preparation. The infection of the broiler chickens was successful as based on the caecal lesions, oocyst shedding and schizonts in the lamina propria of the caecum, but did not affect growth performance of the birds. In the infected birds fed the MOS preparation, the number of schizonts was reduced without a decrease in the severity of caecal lesions and without impact on growth performance. It is suggested that the MOS preparation had enhanced the immunity of the infected birds and thereby had decreased the number of schizonts. It is concluded that this study presents evidence for a protective effect of MOS against coccidiosis infection in broilers.
  H.E. Mohamed and A.C. Beynen
  Plasma vitamin C concentrations were determined in Saanen and Nubian goats kept in Sudan and while they were either pregnant or lactating. The plasma vitamin C concentrations were lower during pregnancy than during either pre-pregnancy or lactation. The concentrations were lower in the Saanen than in the Nubian goats. Vitamin C concentrations in milk from the Saanen goats were lower than in milk from the Nubian goats, but absolute excretion was higher in the former breed. Saanen kids had lower plasma vitamin C concentrations than Nubian kids. It is suggested tentatively that the low vitamin C status of the Saanen goats during pregnancy is associated with less resistance to disease.
  S. C. Pross , E. A. Plantinga , A. G. Lemmens and A.C. Beynen
  Diets containing either fish oil or sunflower oil were fed to six healthy cats according to a cross-over design with feeding periods of 4 weeks. The diet with fish oil significantly lowered plasma butyrylcholinesterase activity. It is suggested tentatively that dietary fish oil could be of use in treatment and/or prevention of diabetes in cats
  H.E. Mohamed , H.M. Mousa and A.C. Beynen
  Sudanese cattle and sheep were compared as to plasma, liver and urinary ascorbic acid concentrations. Cattle had lower hepatic ascorbic acid concentrations than sheep. Male cattle had lower plasma ascorbic acid levels and female cattle had lower urinary levels than their sheep counterparts. Concentrations of liver ascorbic acid were lower in females and urinary ascorbic acid was higher in females, irrespective of the species. It is concluded that cattle and sheep may differ as to ascorbic acid metabolism and status, but differences in environmental factors could have had an impact also.
  C. Yuangklang , Th. Wensing , A. G. Lemmens , S. Jittakhot and A.C. Beynen
  The objective of the present experiment was to investigate whether phytate feeding would counteract the inhibitory effect of calcium on fat digestion in rats. Rats were fed semipurified diets either low in calcium or high in calcium with various levels of added sodium phytate. Body weight and food intake were not influenced when phytate was added to the high-calcium diet. Phytate significantly raised fat digestibility and diminished group mean fecal bile acid excretion when compared to the high-calcium, phytate-free diet. The apparent digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein and ash were not affected by phytate. It is suggested that phytate feeding counteracts the inhibitory effect of calcium on fat digestion through complexing calcium in the small intestinal digesta, leading to less calcium phosphate sediment so that less bile acids are bound to the sediment and more bile acids were available for the process of fat digestion.
  K. Vasupen , C. Yuangklang , S. Wongsuthavas , P. Srenanul , J. Mitchaothai and A.C. Beynen
  The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary Broken Rice (BR) and Cassava Chips (CC) on growth, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention in growing Kadon pigs in a parallel design. There were 4 measurement periods over the entire experiment lasting 56 days. Slaughter and meat characteristics were determined at the end of the experiment. For the entire experimental period there was no significant diet effect on Average Daily Gain (ADG), but ADG on the CC diet was on average 12% lower. In the pigs fed the BR diet the digestibilities of Dry Matter (DM), Organic Matter (OM), Crude Protein (CP), crude fat (EE, ethereal extract) and carbohydrates (NFE, nitrogen-free extract) were all higher. The higher digestibility of OM in the pigs fed on the BR diet was associated with a higher digestibility of gross energy in the diet. The higher digestibility CP in the pigs fed the BR diet was reflected by a smaller fecal Nitrogen (N) output, but N retention in the 2 groups of pigs was similar. This study shows that the carbohydrates in BR are more easily digested than those in CC. The higher amount of protein and the higher digestible carbohydrate content of BR, in combination with the actual prices and availability of BR and CC, will determine which carbohydrate source will be used in pig production, including on small-holder farms.
  K. Vasupen , C. Yuangklang , S. Wongsuthavas , P. Srenanul , J. Mitchaothai and A.C. Beynen
  In the present experiment, the effect of consumption of either Broken Rice (BR) or Cassava Chips (CC) on calcium and phosphorus balance was studied in growing Kadon pigs. Sixteen male pigs with initial body weight of 10.4 + 1.8 kg were used in a completely randomized design. The experimental diets contained similar concentrations of calcium and phosphorus, but the intakes were somewhat higher in pigs fed the CC diet. Apparent calcium and phosphorus absorption, when expressed as a percentage of intake, was significantly lower in the pigs fed the CC diet. In the pigs fed the CC diet instead of the BR diet, fecal calcium and phosphorus excretion were significantly increased. These data indicate that when formulating pig diets containing either BR or CC as carbohydrate source the levels of calcium and phosphorus may be adjusted to take into account the different efficiencies of absorption.
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