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Articles by A.B. Saba
Total Records ( 2 ) for A.B. Saba
  A.B. Saba and R.O.A Arowolo
  The response of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle to adrenergic stimulation was studied in Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata). Adrenergic stimulation was achieved by application of adrenaline on strips of isolated duodenum in organ bath. The potency, affinity and efficacy of the agonist alone and in the presence of antagonists were determined by EC50, pA2 and Emax, respectively. Adrenaline inhibited contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract of C. moschata in a dose dependent fashion. Contractions of isolated duodenum recorded in the presence of adrenaline were predominantly of slow wave components. The cumulative concentration-response curve revealed that there were two phases of the response of duodenum to adrenaline. There was an initial concentration-dependent contraction of partially contracted segments from 110 9-110 7M of adrenaline, while concentrations higher than 110 7 M caused relaxation. Dibenamine and propranolol modified the response of duodenum to adrenaline and caused a rightward shift of adrenaline cumulative concentration-response curve in the isolated duodenum which indicate the presence of a- and - receptors as mediators of adrenergic effects. Both antagonists significantly (p< 0.05) reduced the potency (EC50) of adrenaline. The pA2 value was also reduced in the presence of dibenamine (p>0.05) and propranolol (p< 0.05) which indicated a reduction in the affinity of adrenaline for the receptors. Dibenamine caused 85% reduction of maximal relaxant response of duodenum to adrenaline; this depression was statistically significant (p< 0.001). Pretreatment of the tissue with propranolol however caused a non-significant (p>0.05) depression of maximal response of duodenum to adrenaline. These all points to the fact that while dibenamine inhibits adrenaline non-competitively, propranolol acts as a competitive blocker. The study confirms that pharmacological responses to adrenergic stimulation in the gastrointestinal tract of C. moschata are mediated by a- or - adrenergic receptors. This effect could be inhibitory or stimulatory depending on the dose of adrenaline administered. It was therefore concluded that the dose of catecholamines modulate what receptor is predominantly stimulated in a tissue at a particular time.
  O.A. Tomori , A.B. Saba and H.O. Dada-Adegbola
  A large proportion of the population in Africa still relies on the use of herbal remedies, which have been claimed to produce beneficial responses. Lagenaria breviflora is one of those numerous plants used as antibacterial and antiviral herbal remedies in local communities in Nigeria. In this study, the efficacy of ethanolic extract of whole fruit of Lagenaria breviflora against common bacteria species such as B. subtilis, S. aureus, S. gallinarium, P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella sp., Proteus sp. and E. coli was investigated. Antibacterial activity was determined by agar-well diffusion method and expressed as the average diameter of the zone of inhibition of bacterial growth around the wells. The effect of the extract was compared with that of the two standard antibiotics (ofloxacin and erythromycin) used. The difference of the means was considered significant at p< 0.05 using Student t-test. The extract potently inhibited the growth of all the bacterial colonies studied. This inhibitory effect was also dose dependent. The antibacterial effect of L. breviflora has a broad spectrum activity because it inhibited the growth of colonies of Gram positive bacteria (B. subtilis and S. aureus) and that of Gram negative bacteria (S. gallinarium, P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella, Proteus and E. coli). Compared with standard antibiotics, the extract had moderate activity. While ofloxacin was observed to be significantly (p< 0.05) more potent than the extract for all the bacteria species studied, the extract was itself more potent than erythromycin on all the bacteria species; P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and Proteus sp were not even sensitive to erythromycin at all in this study. The degree of inhibition by the plant extract varies from one bacteria colony to the other. The bacteria colonies were susceptible to the antibacterial activity of the extract of L. breviflora in the following descending order; B. subtilis> S. gallinarium> S. aureus> P. aeruginosa> Klebsiella=Proteus> E. coli Findings from this study show that the ethnomedical use of the plant as antibacterial remedy is well placed and further effort is warranted; in order to isolate and elucidate the active principles in the plant with the view of deriving the potential therapeutic benefits inherent in L. breviflora.
 
 
 
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