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Articles by A.A.H. Kadhum
Total Records ( 4 ) for A.A.H. Kadhum
  M.F.M. Abushammala , N.E.A. Basri , H. Basri , A.A.H. Kadhum and A.H. El-Shafie
  Decomposition of municipal solid waste in landfills under anaerobic conditions produces gas containing approximately 50-60% methane (CH4) and 30-40% carbon dioxide (CO2) by volume. CH4 is one of the most important greenhouse gases because its global warming potential is more than 21 times CO2, which has adverse effects on the environment and human life. The CH4 emission from landfills is continually increasing due to increasing population growth and per capita waste generation. This study attempted to assess, in quantitative terms, the amount of CH4 that would be emitted from landfills in Malaysia over the years 1981-2024 using the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change 2006 First Order Decay Model. Furthermore, it tends to assess the effects of landfill gas collection system and waste recycling on CH4 emission. In order to attain accurate CH4 emission estimation, waste generation estimation over the years 1981-2024 were performed in two scenarios. Each scenario was used by the model to estimate CH4 emission either taken into account CH4 capturing amounts and increasing waste recycling over the study period or not, to evaluate their effect on CH4 emission reductions. Based on this, global CH4 emission in 2024, included 1,078 and 1,365 Gg CH4 emission reduction from the emission estimated using the first and the second waste generation scenarios, respectively, which indicated that increasing landfill gas collection system projects and amount of waste recycling provide greatest potential for controlling CH4 emission from landfills.
  A.Y. Musa , A.A.H. Kadhum , A.B. Mohamad , M.S. Takriff , S.K. Kamarudin and A.R. Daud
  The corrosion rate for mild steel in 2.5 M H2SO4 at 30°C for different flow velocities was determined. Electrochemical techniques such as Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were carried out to study the effects of flow velocity on corrosion rate of mild steel. The turbulent conditions experiments were simulated using rotating cylinder electrode (RCE). Results obtained from Tafel polarization and EIS were in good agreement. The study revealed that the mild steel corrosion rate decreased with increases in flow velocity due to improvement of the passivation by an increase of the oxygen supply. Corrosion potentials were shafted toward the cathodic values and the magnitude of the impedance was rose with flow velocities.
  W.M. Alalayah , M.S. Kalil , A.A.H. Kadhum , J.M. Jahim , S.Z.S. Jaapar and N.M. Alauj
  A two-stage fermentation process consisting of dark and photo-fermentation periods was carried out in a batch reactor. In the first stage, glucose was fermented in the dark stage using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC 13564; CSN1-4) to produce acetate, CO2 and H2. The acetate produced in the first stage is fermented to H2 and CO2 by Rhodobacter sphaeroides NCIMB 8253 for further hydrogen production in the second, illuminated stage. The yield of hydrogen in the first stage was about 3.10 mol H2 (mol glucose)-1 at a glucose concentration of 10 g L-1, pH 6±0.2 and 37°C and the second stage yield was about 1.10-1.25 mol H2 (mol acetic acid)-1 at pH 6.8±0.2 and 32°C, without removal of the Clostridium CSN1-4. The overall yield of hydrogen in the two-stage process, with glucose as the main substrate was higher than single-stage fermentation.
  W.M. Alalayah , M.S. Kalil , A.A.H. Kadhum , J. Jahim , A. Zaharim , N.M. Alauj and A. El-Shafie
  Box-Wilson Design (BWD) model was applied to determine the optimum values of influencing parameters in anaerobic fermentation to produce hydrogen using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC 13564). The main focus of the study was to find the optimal relationship between the hydrogen yield and three variables including initial substrate concentration, initial medium pH and reaction temperature. Microbial growth kinetic parameters for hydrogen production under anaerobic conditions were determined using the Monod model with incorporation of a substrate inhibition term. The values of μmax (maximum specific growth rate) and Ks (saturation constant) were 0.398 h-1 and 5.509 g L-1, respectively, using glucose as the substrate. The experimental substrate and biomass-concentration profiles were in good agreement with those obtained by the kinetic-model predictions. By varying the conditions of the initial substrate concentration (1-40 g L-1), reaction temperature (25-40°C) and initial medium pH (4-8), the model predicted a maximum hydrogen yield of 3.24 mol H2 (mol glucose)-1. The experimental data collected utilising this design was successfully fitted to a second-order polynomial model. An optimum operating condition of 10 g L-1 initial substrate concentration, 37°C reaction temperature and 6.0±0.2 initial medium pH gave 80% of the predicted maximum yield of hydrogen where as the experimental yield obtained in this study was 77.75% exhibiting a close accuracy between estimated and experimental values. This is the first report to predict bio-hydrogen yield by applying Box-Wilson Design in anaerobic fermentation while optimizing the effects of environmental factors prevailing there by investigating the effects of environmental factors.
 
 
 
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