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Articles by A.A. Zaidan
Total Records ( 19 ) for A.A. Zaidan
  M.A. Watari , A.A. Zaidan and B.B. Zaidan
  Several changes have taken place in the field of communication technologies (ICT) in recent years, specifically in the era of rapid technology development. Mobile technologies, especially smart phones, have replaced computers in various significant tasks. This development influenced the interactions between citizens and government agencies in m-Government. m-Government is an extension of e-Government, which provides services to citizens in general or to subscribers in particular. These services range from public to private bodies and the data transmitted sometimes require authentication and confidentiality. Thus, the need for data security is inevitable. This study will discuss the security of m-Government using security algorithms and report some literature work in this field to highlight its weaknesses.
  A.A. Zaidan , M.B. Lakulu , M. Hashim , Mussab Alaa , B.B. Zaidan , O.H. Salman , Bahbibi Rahmatullah and Nazre Abdul Rashid
  The aim of this feasibility study is to find out objectively, if the proposed vitual anti-spam system (BVAS) with document processing is a viable idea in terms of technology, market considerations and finance. This feasibility study further attempts to identify the potential problems that the proposed system would face and ensure, if it is a workable and profitable business enterprise. In this study, a market strategy of the proposed vitual anti-spam will be discuss on four parts namely, market feasibility study on the use of an effective vitual anti-spam system, market feasibility analysis, formation of anti-spam company and proposed commercialization strategy, strategy justification and implementation plans. The finding from this study has shown the proposed BVAS is cheap, the anti-spam catch rate is above 98% and more importantly the false positive rate is around 0.5%. This makes BVAS to be much desired and in demand among anti-spam users. This means if BVAS is developed commercially, it can compete successfully in the open market.
  Hamdan O. Alanizi , M.L. Mat Kiah , A.A. Zaidan , B.B. Zaidan and Gazi Mahabubul Alam
  In this study, handshake protocol for patient, medical center and doctor, medical center is proposed for electronic medical record transmission to improve the confidentiality of data transmission and non-repudiation of sending and receiving medical records. The proposed topology depends on symmetric and asymmetric cryptography to achieve high level of secrecy for electronic medical records. The new topology has been described on multi-users (i.e., Doctors and Patient). The new topology has been implemented using Ntru crypto-system and AES encryption method. The proposed solution has been tested to have high level of confidentiality up to the legal age of the medical records.
  Shahad Nidhal , M.A. Mohd. Ali , A.A. Zaidan , B.B. Zaidan and Hind Najah
  This study proposed new algorithm for FHR baseline (BL) and baseline Variability (V) calculation. In this study, we present a method for estimating baseline as one of the most important features present in the (FHR) signal. An algorithm based on digital (CTG) using Math Lab programming to estimate FHR baseline and baseline variability, the research in this study rely on detection of baseline value and baseline variability which gives an indication of the fetal status and health condition. The results are compared with the opinion of experts (obstetricians) baseline and baseline variability estimation. The obtained results shows slightly difference with the expert’s opinion as a first step for further work to estimate the other parameters of the CTG.
  Mohammed M. Jawad , Sarah T. AbdulQader , B.B. Zaidan , A.A. Zaidan , Ibraheem T. AbdulQader and A.W. Naji
  Dentistry has entered an exciting era of high technology. Lasers provide new powerful tools that is characterized by a bloodless field and applied in most branches of dentistry. There are many types of lasers, such as Gas laser, Chemical laser, Dye laser, Metal-vapor laser, Solid-state laser and Semiconductor laser. Each laser type has its own unique features, advantages and disadvantages. While one laser may be suitable for some procedures, it will be unsuitable for others, so it is important for the dentist to have a back ground information about this technology and its uses in dentistry.
  Mohammed M. Jawad , Sarah T. Abdul Qader , A.A. Zaidan , B.B. Zaidan , A.W. Naji and Ibraheem T. Abdul Qader
  Laser can now be regarded as practical and economical tool with unique properties that has been utilized effectively in several applications. Medical, dental, biological and various chemical and physical investigations use lasers due to their advantages. The medical laser systems offer the physician and the dentist not only a window, but also a door into this high technology which facilitate a lot of clinical and therapeutic applications. The user of the medical laser should understand the fact that there is no certain laser can be used for all tasks, therefore, it is important for the medical laser users to have a fundamental understanding of qualitative laser technology and essential operation of those lasers with biological tissues. In spite of their advantages, lasers have definite hazard by causing serious damage on the tissue of both patient and laser operation personnel. Due to this fact, laser users should study the laser hazards and safety precautions.
  B.B. Zaidan , A.A. Zaidan and M.L. Mat Kiah
  Telemedicine referred to any health care delivery application using an active media such as internet, mobile platforms, or satellites to communicate the parties. Telemedicine can be as simple as patient-doctors phone call, or as complex as the remote surgeries (telesurgery). Telemedicine applications required highly secured systems. In this study we will review the impact of data privacy and confidentiality on developing telemedicine applications. Moreover, we will support this review by short survey on 130 participates to support the literature evidence.
  Mohamed A. Ahmed , Miss Laiha Mat Kiah , B.B. Zaidan and A.A. Zaidan
  In this study, we developed a novel method that is able to shift the limit for transparent data hiding in audio from the fourth LSB layer to the eighth LSB layer, thus the method has improved the capacity and robustness of data hiding in the audio file using a two steps approach. In the first step, noise gate software logic used to obtain a desired signal for embedding the secret message of the input host audio signal (carrier). In the second step, standard 8th LSB layer embedding has been done for this desired signal. Audio quality evaluation has used to evaluate our purposed method in two ways. First, objective test showed the algorithm succeeds in this task, while increasing SNR values of our algorithm comparing to SNR values obtained by standard LSB embedding in the 8th bits LSB layer and the comparison of the histogram audio excerpts has proved this also. Second, subjective listening test proved that high perceptual transparency is accomplished even if eight LSB of host audio signal are used for data hiding.
  S.A. Hameed , B.B. Zaidan , A.A. Zaidan , A.W. Naji and O.F. Tawfiq
  The goal of this study is to investigate and evaluate how far three-dimensional skull biometric is reliable in term of the accurate measurements, capability and applicability. It was hard to evaluate or simulate an application use three-dimensional skull in biometric, however, can field imaging systems provide a new suitable environment to simulate a new three-dimensional skull biometric. The second goal of this study is to assess how good the new three-dimensional image system is. Subsequently, this study will evaluate the reliability and dependability of using skull biometric. The simulation based on the three-dimensional skull recognition using three-dimensional matching technique. The feature of the simulate system shows the capability of using three-dimensional matching system as an efficient way to identify the person through his or her skull by match it with database, this technique grantee fast processing with optimizing the false positive and negative as well.
  H.T. Madhloom , S.A. Kareem , H. Ariffin , A.A. Zaidan , H.O. Alanazi and B.B. Zaidan
  The aim of this research is to automate the process of detection and classification of leukocytes using image processing techniques. White blood cell recognition and classification into various distinct subtypes is very important in clinical and laboratory tests. The nucleus features are adequate to identify the type of the cell in most of the case, the traditional morphology test which is done by a hematology expert to look at the cell under the microscope is a time consuming and tedious job, beside that the medical instrument which is used to do the test are costly and may not be exist in all the hospitals and clinics. An automatic image segmentation system can make the inspection procedure of blood smear much easier and faster and the amount of data that can be analyzed by such a clinician handle more data than they normally can handle. The most crucial step in such systems is in white blood cell segmentation. In this research we focus on white blood cell nucleus segmentation that can be used to separate the nucleus from the whole cell body by using a combination of automatic contrast stretching supported by image arithmetic operation, minimum filter and global threshold techniques. Results showed that the proposed method manages to obtain accuracy between 85-98%. The results showed that the proposed method is promising comparing to the result from the expert.
  Mohamed Abomhara , Othman O. Khalifa , Omar Zakaria , A.A. Zaidan , B.B. Zaidan and Hamdan O. Alanazi
  With the increasing and continuous use of digital communications on the internet in recent times, security is becoming more and more relevant and important. However, special and reliable security is required for the many digital applications available such as video conferencing, digital television and mobile TV. The classical techniques of data security are not appropriate for the current multimedia usage. This study addresses the current algorithm of multimedia encryption schemes that have been proposed in the literature and description of multimedia security. It is a comparative study between symmetric key encryption and asymmetric key encryption in achieving an efficient, flexible and secure video data.
  Ali K. Hmood , Hamid A. Jalab , Z.M. Kasirun , B.B. Zaidan and A.A. Zaidan
  The aim of this study is to review the strength and weakness for the possible multimedia cover for the steganography approaches. In addition, the security level of each approach and how is probable to combine the steganography and cryptography. Steganography is an art on which the data can be hide in other data as cover, the multimedia files is the commonly used for hiding data. The main aspects of the steganography is the capacity and security, where the capacity refer to how much data can be hidden in the cover carrier, while the security concern with the ability of disclose or altering the data by unauthorized party. The multimedia files, such as, image, video, audio and text are the possible covers for hiding secure information or data. Each of these covers has advantages and disadvantages; as a result of this study we will discuss the possibility to use these files as a cover. In the last part of this study, we suggest a further direction to improve the capacity and security aspects.
  B.B. Zaidan , A.A. Zaidan , A.K. Al-Frajat and H.A. Jalab
  The growing possibilities of modern communications need the special means of security especially on computer network. The network security is becoming more important as the number of data being exchanged on the Internet increases. Therefore, the confidentiality and data integrity are requires to protect against unauthorized access and use. This has resulted in an explosive growth of the field of information hiding. Nowadays, protection system can be classified into more specific as hiding information (Steganography) or encryption information (Cryptography) or a combination between them. In this study, we have review the strength of the combine the steganography and cryptography techniques, since there is non-existence of standard algorithms to be used in (hiding and encryption) secret messages. As a result of this study, the two techniques have been presented and the combination between these techniques has been discussed.
  A.K. Al-Frajat , H.A. Jalab , Z.M. Kasirun , A.A. Zaidan and B.B. Zaidan
  The aim of this review is to study the methods of steganography using the video file as a cover carrier. The steganography is the art of protecting the information through embedding data in medium carrier, for instants this study illustrate historically this art, as well as the study describes methods as a review for this art in the video file. The video based steganography can be used as one video file, separated images in frames or images and audio files. Since that, the use of the video based steganography can be more eligible than other multimedia files. As a result of this study, the video based steganography has been discussed and the advantages of using the video file as a cover carrier for steganography have been proposed.
  M. Abomhara , O.O. Khalifa , O. Zakaria , A.A. Zaidan , B.B. Zaidan and A. Rame
  In this study, a new comparative study of video compression techniques was presented. Due to the rapid developments in internet technology and computers, popularity of video streaming applications is rapidly growing. Therefore today, storing and transmitting uncompressed raw video requires large storage space and network bandwidth. Special algorithms which take these characteristics of the video into account can compress the video with high compression ratios. This study demonstrates the representative efforts on video compression and presents the properties and limitations of: H.261, H.263, MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, MPEG-7 and H.264. However, we show that H.264 entails significant improvements in coding efficiency, latency, complexity and robustness. It provides new possibilities for creating better video encoders and decoders that provide higher quality video streams at maintained bit-rates (compared to previous standards), or, conversely, the same quality video at a lower bit-rate Hence, appropriate video compression techniques that meet video applications requirements have to be selected.
  A.A. Zaidan , B.B. Zaidan , Ali K. Al-Fraja and Hamid A. Jalab
  The aim of this study is to investigate the methods of steganography using the text file as a cover carrier. The hiding data or Steganography is the art of protecting the information by embedding data in medium carrier, for instants this study illustrates historically this art. The steganography technique has been used mainly to hide secret data within multimedia files and one of used files to hide secret data is the text files. In this study, we have proposed the steganography methods using the text files as a review. The study restricts the weak points of this art by hiding information in text file. As a result of this study, the text based steganography has been discussed and the advantages and disadvantages of using the text file as a cover carrier for steganography has been proposed.
  A.A. Zaidan , B.B. Zaidan , Ali K. Al-Frajat and Hamid A. Jalab


Mr. Sreeram, Anikode Mahadevan; a Graduate Research Assistant, Texas Sustainable Energy & Research Institute, University of Texas pointed out a plagiarism in a paper published in Journal of Applied Sciences vol. 10, issue 18, p. 2161-2167. On the receipt of the letter from Mr. Sreeram, Anikode Mahadevan, the case forwarded to the Ethics Committee of the Science Alert. As per the report of the Ethics Committee, article entitled "An Overview: Theoretical and Mathematical Perspectives for Advance Encryption Standard/Rijndael" authored by A.A. Zaidan, B.B. Zaidan, Ali K. Al-Frajat and Hamid A. Jalab, published in Journal of Applied Sciences, 10 (18): 2161-2167. (DOI: 10.3923/jas.2010.2161.2167) contains substantial sections of text that have been taken verbatim from earlier publication without clear and unambiguous attribution.

Science Alert considers misappropriation of intellectual property and duplication of text from other authors or publications without clear and unambiguous attribution totally unacceptable.

Plagiarism is a violation of copyright and a serious breach of scientific ethics. The Editors and Publisher have agreed to officially retract this article.

Science Alert is highly thankful to Mr. Sreeram, Anikode Mahadevan; a Graduate Research Assistant, Texas Sustainable Energy & Research Institute, University of Texas for pointing out this plagiarism.

Detail of article from which text has been copied by A.A. Zaidan, B.B. Zaidan, Ali K. Al-Frajat and Hamid A. Jalab:

Daemen, J. and V. Rijmen, 1999. AES proposal: Rijndael. The Rijndael Block Cipher Document Version 2, pp: 1-45.

  Ali K. Hmood , B.B. Zaidan , A.A. Zaidan and Hamid A. Jalab
  In the last few years, we have seen many new and powerful steganography techniques reported in the literature. Steganography is the art of communicating a message by embedding it into multimedia data. It is desired to maximize the amount of hidden information (embedding rate) while preserving security against detection by unauthorized parties. Many different carrier file formats can be used, but digital images are the most popular because of their frequency on the Internet. For hiding secret information in images, there exists a large variety of steganographic techniques some are more complex than others and all of them have respective strong and weak points. In this study intends to offer a state of the art overview of the hiding information technique using image file as a cover carrier to illustrate the possibility of using the image for hiding secure information for business and personal use.
  A.W. Naji , A.A. Zaidan and B.B. Zaidan
  Problem statement: The executable files are one of the most important files in operating systems and in most systems designed by developers (programmers/software engineers), and then hiding information in these file is the basic goal for this study, because most users of any system cannot alter or modify the content of these files. There are many challenges of hidden data in the unused area two within executable files, which is dependencies of the size of the cover file with the size of hidden information, differences of the size of file before and after the hiding process, availability of the cover file after the hiding process to perform normally and detection by antivirus software as a result of changes made to the file. Approach: The system designed to accommodate the release mechanism that consists of two functions; first is the hiding of the information in the unused area 2 of PE-file (exe.file), through the execution of four process (specify the cover file, specify the information file, encryption of the information, and hiding the information) and the second function is the extraction of the hiding information through three process (specify the steno file, extract the information, and decryption of the information). Results: The programs were coded in Java computer language and implemented on Pentium PC. The designed algorithms were intended to help in proposed system aim to hide and retract information (data file) with in unused area 2 of any execution file (exe.file). Conclusion: Features of the short-term responses were simulated that the size of the hidden data does depend on the size of the unused area2 within cover file which is equal 20% from the size of exe.file before hiding process, most antivirus systems do not allow direct write in executable file, so the approach of the proposed system is to prevent the hidden information to observation of these systems and the exe.file still function as usual after the hiding process.
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