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Articles by A. Togola
Total Records ( 11 ) for A. Togola
  T.A. Agunbiade , F.E. Nwilene , A. Onasanya , M. Semon , A. Togola , M. Tamo and O.O. Falola
  Upland rice is mostly at risk from soil insect pests, including termites which cause significant yield losses. Studies were conducted at Kasua-Mangani, Kaduna State, Northcentral Nigeria, to evaluate the resistance status of 18 upland NERICA rice varieties to termite attack. The percent plant attacked by termites on the 18 NERICA varieties at 60 and 90 Days after Sowing (DAS) was between 2.47 to 12.45% and 3.82 to 20.89%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the response of NERICA rice varieties to termite attack at 60 and 90 DAS. The resistance status of NERICA rice varieties to termite attack was classified into 4 groups as follows: Moderately Resistant (MR), Moderately Susceptible with recessive resistance (MSr), Moderately Susceptible (MS) and Highly Susceptible (HS) according to cluster analysis. Of the 18 NERICA rice varieties studied, only NERICA 5, 14 and 18 were classified as MR and could be recommended as the most adapted rice varieties in termite prone areas of Northcentral Nigeria.
  A. Togola , F.E. Nwilene , A. Agbaka , F. Degila , A. Tolulope and D. Chougourou
  The stalk-eyed fly or Diopsid, Diopsis sp. (Diptera, Diopsidae) is an economically significant insect pest of rice in Tropical Africa. The objective of this study is to develop a fast screening method of rice varieties for resistance to Diopsis sp. in a view to advice breeders on resistance sources and to guide producers in the use of resistant varieties to reduce or avoid insecticidal treatments of the fields. The study was conducted in 2008 at the AfricaRice/IITA Station, Cotonou where, 18 upland NERICA varieties and their parents (Oryza glaberrima and O. sativa) were twice screened under artificial infestation of Diopsid’s eggs and adults. The screening method was based on Brown Plant Hopper screening techniques using small cages. As results, only NERICA16 and NERICA18 showed good resistance to Diopsid attack at 20 Days after Infestation (DAI) under egg infestation. The remaining 18 entries were more or less susceptible. Under adult infestation, 16 NERICA varieties showed very good resistance to the stalk-eyed fly attack at 20 DAI. Of these, NERICA18, NERICA11, NERICA6 and NERICA15 were highly resistant (% deadhearts <7%). Only NERICA9 and NERICA17 were moderately susceptible. The African O. glaberrima parent CG14 was the most resistant entry. The Asian parent line WAB56-104 also suffered less damage from Diopsis sp. than most of the NERICAs. In this experiment, the adult infestation appeared to be more realistic than infestation with eggs because it is a free choice method in which pest pressure is weak and where varieties can demonstrate their real behaviour.
  A. Togola , F.E. Nwilene , E.A. Kotoklo , K. Amevoin , I.A. Glitho , O.E. Oyetunji and A. Niang
  In tropical Africa, termite damage to rice crops leads to important losses of farmers’ income. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of rice varieties and cultural practices on termite populations and damage in the field. For this purpose, 10 rice varieties (seven NERICA, one Oryza glaberrima and two O. sativa) were cultivated in rainfed upland at Niaouli (Benin) under four cultivation practices. Termite populations and damage were evaluated during tillering, heading and maturation stages. NERICA 6, CG14 (the African O. glaberrima, parent of the NERICA), NERICA 10, NERICA 2 and NERICA 3 were the least infested and suffered least damage, while NERICA 4 and LA23 were the most susceptible. Among the cultural practices, use of Metarhizium anisopliae and regular weeding resulted in lower termite populations and less damage than other practices. Rice was most susceptible to termite attack in the period from heading to maturation. Results of this study should help rice farmers in their choice of tolerant varieties and adapted cultural practices as effective alternative measures to control termites and save rice production in the rainfed upland ecology.
  D.C. Chougourou , A. Togola , F.E. Nwilene , J. Adeliossi , F. Bachabi and O.E. Oyetunji
  The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, is a major primary insect of stored cereals worldwide. In Benin, it causes serious damages on paddy rice stored in rural zones. Nowadays, there is a big interest in developing alternative measures included the use of resistant varieties for controlling this key pest. For this purpose, a study was conducted at Africa Rice Center in 2008 to establish the resistance of 17 improved rice varieties included 13 NERICA, 2 Oryza sativa and 2 Oryza glaberrima to this pest. The varieties were artificially infested under laboratory conditions. The results showed that CG14, WAB56-50, WAB56-104 and NERICA4 had good resistance against the attack of Rhyzopertha dominica while NERICA10 and NERICA8 were highly susceptible. The most tolerant cultivars investigated from this study could be recommended for safe storage to reduce pest and economic losses in all endemic zones where R. dominica represents a major threat.
  A. Togola , P.A. Seck , I.A. Glitho , A. Diagne , C. Adda , A. Toure and F.E. Nwilene
  In Benin, on-farm storage of paddy rice is increasingly exposed to pest damage. Insect infestation causes a loss of income to farmers and other post-harvest stakeholders. The objective of this study is to assess the magnitude of damage caused to rice stored on-farm and evaluate the potential economic risk. In this study, 65 stocks of paddy rice were inspected and sampled in order to assess the economic losses. In addition, an agronomic survey was carried out to determine producer perceptions about the economic impact of stored rice pests in a farming environment. The findings show that weight loss amounts to 5.47% after 6 months of storage in the southern region, 4.07% in the central region and 1.64% in the northern region. From an economic perspective, 6 months duration of storage is likely to cause an estimated loss of 21,315 FCFA (Franc of the African Financial Community) per ton of paddy in the South region, compared to losses of 8,088 FCFA in the North. Furthermore, 36.92% of farmer respondents consider that these insects cause considerable economic damage to stored rice. This study made it possible not only to assess current losses attributable to insect pests in the country but also to obtain future projections about trends in high-risk regions. These findings will undoubtedly pave the way for future research in improved stored rice protection and income safeguards for various stakeholders intervening in the post-harvest sector.
  O.E. Oyetunji , C.O. Peluola , F.E. Nwilene and A. Togola
  Termites are serious biotic threat to rainfed upland rice ecology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the root and stem damage caused by the effect of termite-fungi (Botryodiplodia theobromae and Trichoderma sp.) interaction on three upland rice varieties (OS 6, LAC 23 and NERICA 1) planted on ultisol soil under screenhouse condition. It was laid on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The results showed that rice variety OS 6 was found to be most susceptible to termite infestation and the termite- fungi interaction as the damage caused on root was high. The root weight was low indicating the level of susceptibility of rice varieties (OS 6>NERICA 1>LAC 23) to termite infestation and damage. NERICA 1 treated with termite, termite+Botryodiplodia and Botryodiplodia only had significant low root weight, OS 6 treated with Trichoderma only, termite+Botryodiplodia and Termites+Trichoderma had significant root weight reduction. The stem girth taken was significantly low in some treatments with termite and fungi. LAC 23 treated with termite+ Botryodiplodia had low stem girth even at three weeks after treatment. NERICA 1 treated with termites had significant low stem girth while OS 6 treated with termite+Trichoderma had low stem girth. The nutrient uptake by the roots of rice plant treated with the two fungi was significantly low. The studies harness the economic importance of Botryodiplodia theobromae and Trichoderma spp., which penetrate into rice plant via termite attack.
  F. E. Nwilene , A. Onasanya , A. Togola , O. Oyetunji , M. Semon , M. Tamo , E.O. Bright and S. Ofodile
  Rice and maize intercrop is a common feature of traditional upland rice cultivation in Nigeria. Stemborer larvae cause significant yield loss in rice. The study aimed at identifying stemborer resistant status of upland NERICA rice varieties and evaluating the effectiveness of maize as a trap crop to protect upland NERICA rice varieties against stemborers. The resistance status of 7 NERICA rice and 2 other rice varieties to stemborer was evaluated in 2006 and 2007 under natural infestation maize and cassava intercropping systems in the humid forest zone of Nigeria. In 2006 study, NERICA1, NERICA2 and NERICA5 together with the resistant check LAC23 were classified as stemborer resistant (SBR) and NERICA3, NERICA4, NERICA6 and NERICA7 together with susceptible check OS6 were classified as stemborer susceptible (SBS). The SBR varieties (NERICA1 and NERICA2) from the 2006 study intercropped with maize and cassava in 2007 revealed the effectiveness of maize as a trap crop and cassava as a refuge for generalist predators against stemborer damage on upland rice. Maize appeared an effective trap crop for rice stemborers because there was a marked and significant reduction in the stemborer attack on rice in the NERICA rice/maize intercrops (GrB cluster) as compared to the NERICA rice monocrops (GrA cluster) and NERICA rice/cassava intercrops (GrA cluster). Maliarpha separatella Ragonot was the predominant stemborer species on rice followed by Sesamia calamistis Hampson. It was concluded that NERICA1 and NERICA2 could be recommended to farmers in stemborer prone areas and that maize was a suitable trap crop for managing rice stemborers.
  A. Togola , E.A. Kotoklo , F.E. Nwilene , K. Amevoin , I.A. Glitho , O.E. Oyetunji and P. Kiepe
  Termites are considered useful insects in natural savannah because of their role in soil fertility regulation, soil aeration and soil porosity. However, they are perceived as a serious threat for tropical agriculture. Due to the complexity of their populations and habitats, they cause high losses on dryland crops, especially upland rice. The present study aimed to analyze the specific diversity of termites on rice (Oryza) in rainfed upland conditions in Benin and to assess the damage they cause. Sampling was carried out in natural savannah and rice fields with 10 upland varieties to evaluate the population of termites. Specific damage was located on the susceptible organs of rice plants. The study allowed the identification of four termite species in the shrub savannah and six species in rice field. The commonest species on rice were Microcerotermes parvus, Microtermes sp., Pseudacanthotermes militaris and Amitermes evuncifer. Termite attack was diverse, but mainly affected roots and stems. The results of this study contributed to the identification of the diversity of termite species on rainfed upland rice and also to the identification of the damage they cause in order to undertake targeted measures against the key species.
  A. Koudamiloro , F.E. Nwilene , D. Silue , A. Togola , O. Oyetunji , Y. Sere and M. Akogbeto
  Insects represent a major group of vectors of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV). This study aimed at identifying the main entomofauna transmitting RYMV to rice crop in Benin. Therefore, the transmission ability of 13 insect species was tested during the rice vegetative stages. These species belong to the Orthoptera order (Oxya hyla, Conocephalus longipennis, Paracinema tricolor, Acrida bicolor and Stenohippus aequus), the Coleoptera order (Chnootriba similis, Aulacophora foveicollis and Xanthadalia effusa), the Homoptera order (Cofana spectra, Nephotettix modulatus, Cofana unimaculata and Poophilis costalis) and the Diptera order (Diopsis thoracica). Among them, four species including P. tricolor, S. aequus, N. modulatus and P. costalis were identified for the first time as RYMV vectors. The species belonging to the Homoptera order appeared to be the most virulent, with higher values of viral titer. Virus distribution in the vector body parts was specific to each order. Basically, virus was more important in the Orthopteran, Coleopteran and Homopteran insects head part. It was also evident in the abdomen part of the Homopteran and the Orthopteran especially for P. tricolor, C. spectra and P. costalis. Disease severity was only observed in C. similis after inoculation and persisted until rice maturity with a score of 5 compared to the control which was 1 from a 1 to 9 scale. This study allowed identifying the presence of RYMV insect vectors in Benin among which, four are reported for the first time in Africa.
  C. Santos , C. Agbangla , D. Chougourou , A. Togola , B. Cisse , I. Akintayo and F. E. Nwilene
  Twenty one rice varieties including 18 upland NERICAs and their parents (two Oryza sativa and one O. glaberrima) were screened for resistance to two primary storage pests: Sitophilus oryzae and Sitotroga cerealella, using the “no choice” infestation method. Resistance of rice varieties was assessed based on the adult’s population obtained from first generation of each species and also on the weight loss recorded on infested samples. Results revealed that adult progenies from S. oryzae and weight loss were very low on paddy and fairly high on husked rice. Results also suggested that glumes are one main parameter conferring the resistance to S. oryzae. Differential responses of rice varieties to S. cerealella were observed. Of the 18 NERICA tested, NERICA6, 14, 4, 3, 15 and 16 were tolerant in increasing order, whereas only NERICA9 and 11 were susceptible. The Oryza glaberrima parent CG 14 was resistant to the insect while the O. sativa parents WAB 56-50 and WAB 56-104 were susceptible. Progenies resistance to the insect may have been provided by the parent CG 14. The implications of the findings and the way forward were discussed.
  O.E. Oyetunji , F.E. Nwilene , A. Togola and K.A. Adebayo
  African Rice Gall Midge (AfRGM) Orseolia oryzivora Harris and Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a major insect pest mainly of rainfed and irrigated lowland rice in Africa. Of the management options identified for controlling AfRGM, host plant resistance is the most compatible and farmer-friendly manner. Rice varieties have morphological and/or biochemical traits associated with resistance which induces diverse resistance to pests. Two resistance mechanisms (antixenosis and antibiosis) were evaluated on ten rice genotypes under artificial infestation. Level of infestation was assessed while morphological traits were observed physically; leaf samples were collected for biochemical analysis in the laboratory. The results showed that the three O. glaberrima varieties were resistant to AfRGM (little or no pest infestation) and all the interspecific genotypes were susceptible to AFRGM. In Oryza sativa varieties, long leaf and leaf sheath have been identified to confer antixenotic resistance to AfRGM. But in Oryza glaberrima varieties, secondary metabolites-Phenol, Terpenoids, Salicylic acids and Monotepernoid have been identified as the key antibiotic traits associated with resistance to AfRGM. The result of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the traits produced four major clusters accounting for 79% of the total variation of the traits which had negative correlation with percentage tiller infestation thereby conferring resistance to AfRGM. Understanding the mechanisms and traits/factors contributing to resistance of host plant is useful in deciding appropriate breeding methodologies for varietal improvement. This work facilitates the effort of plant breeders and entomologists in developing and deploying insect-resistant cultivars to overcome new insect biotypes.
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