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Articles by A. Sharma
Total Records ( 12 ) for A. Sharma
  M Rajappa , S.K Sen and A. Sharma
 

Cytokines are responsible for the modulation of immunological and inflammatory processes and play a significant role in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. We estimated the levels of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines in South Indian patients with coronary artery disease. The study population comprised of groups 1-3: 100 patients each with acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and stable angina, respectively, and group 4 (100 healthy controls). Cytokine levels (interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-10, and tumor necrosis factor-) were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor- levels were significantly higher in patients from groups 1 and 2, than in group 3 and controls. Acute myocardial infarction patients exhibited higher serum levels of interleukin-10 compared with other groups and control subjects. Patients with unstable angina had significantly lower interleukin-10 concentrations than those with stable angina. The ratios of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines in all the study groups increased significantly when patients with unstable angina were compared to other groups. In patients with acute myocardial infarction, interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor- levels showed significant correlation with established risk factors such as body mass index, blood pressure, and lipid levels. Acute myocardial infarction patients show elevation in proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, while unstable angina is associated with low levels of serum interleukin-10. Higher levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 may be needed to provide protection in unstable angina. These cytokines are markers of coronary artery disease and may be used for the identification of high-risk patients with unstable angina/acute myocardial infarction.

  A. Sharma , N. Barman and M. Malwal
  The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate in vitro antimicrobial activity of Semecarpus anacardium L. (Anacardiaceae) nuts oils. Essential oil from nut of S. anacardium was extracted by hydro-distillation method in a Clevenger type apparatus. The antimicrobial screening of the isolated essential oil was performed against Gram positive-Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) Gram negative-Proteus vulgaris (ATCC 2027), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and fungal strains Aspergillus niger (ATCC 16404), Aspergillus fumigates (ATCC 26933), Candida albicans (ATCC5027) and Candida glabrata (ATCC 66032) using disc diffusion method. The essential oil was found to be more or less active against almost all tested pathogenic strains with varied spectrum of inhibition zone (7.0±0.06-13.0±0.01 mm). The significant inhibitory effect was observed against Staphylococcus aureus (12.0±0.05 mm) and A. niger (13.0±0.01 mm). The significant potential of Semecarpus anacardium nut oil concludes that it could serve as a source of antimicrobial agents.
  A Harris and A. Sharma
  Objective

To quantify the determinants of the duration of time spent in an emergency department (ED) for patients who need admission to hospital.

Methods

A retrospective analysis of a year of administrative data on all patients presenting to 38 public hospital EDs in Victoria, Australia in 2005/2006. Individual administrative data on patient care time, defined as the time in the ED from first being seen by a treating doctor to admission, were analysed using parametric survival analysis (generalised model). Patient times were regarded as censored if the patients died in the ED or were transferred to another hospital. The outcome measure was the elasticity of patient care time, calculated as the percentage change in time for a 1% change in continuous variables and a unit change in dichotomous variables.

Results

The mean patient care time was 396 min (95% CI 395 to 398). Reduced time in ED was associated with the number of nurses (elasticity=–2.38%; 95% CI –2.31 to –2.45); the number of beds (elasticity= –2.99%; 95% CI, –2.89 to –3.08); the number of doctors (elasticity=–0.235%; 95% CI –0.232 to –0.237). There was significant variation in the time spent in the ED across hospitals after adjustment for observable differences in patient and hospital characteristics. Overall an increase in hospital resources, as measured by the number of nurses, doctors and physical beds, is associated with a significant reduction in patient care time in the ED.

Conclusion

Increasing hospital capacity is likely to reduce overcrowding in the average ED, but factors that determine congestion in individual hospitals need to be further investigated.

  N.S. Gill , A. Sharma , R. Arora and Dr. M. Bali
  The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential using various in vitro methods by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and Hydrogen peroxide. Antiulcerogenic effect of methanolic Cassia tora seed extract was evaluated by pyloric ligation and non-steroidal anti inflammatory induced mucosal damage on Wistar Albino rats. The phytochemical screening shows the presence of various phytoconstituents belonging to class of alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids and steroids. The extract showed maximum antioxidant activity i.e., 76.35±0.52 and 70.17±0.14 by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and Hydrogen peroxide at the dose of 200 μg mL-1, respectively as compared to the standard (ascorbic acid). Further, antiulcer activity was assessed in which the experimental animals were divided into five groups categorized as control, standard, normal and two extract treated groups. Various biochemical parameters such as gastric volume, free and total acidity was recorded from all groups. The reduction of ulcer index as well as gastric acid output in extract treated animals was found to be statistically significant with respect to control animals. The extract exhibited optimum percentage inhibition of 75% by pyloric ligation and 70.31% by non-steroidal anti inflammatory induced ulcer method at concentration of 200 μg mL-1, respectively which was comparable to standard (ranitidine). Cassia tora Linn. is well known traditional plant used in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine. The present study suggests that Cassia tora seed extract possessed potent anti-ulcerogenic properties that might be afforded via cytoprotective mechanism by virtue of its antioxidant properties. These results supported the ethnomedical uses of Cassia tora seeds in the treatment of antiulcer.
  T Kondo , I. E Khattabi , W Nishimura , D. R Laybutt , P Geraldes , S Shah , G King , S Bonner Weir , G Weir and A. Sharma
 

Mammalian MafA/RIPE3b1 is an important glucose-responsive transcription factor that regulates function, maturation, and survival of β-cells. Increased expression of MafA results in improved glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and β-cell function. Because MafA is a highly phosphorylated protein, we examined whether regulating activity of protein kinases can increase MafA expression by enhancing its stability. We demonstrate that MafA protein stability in MIN6 cells and isolated mouse islets is regulated by both p38 MAPK and glycogen synthase kinase 3. Inhibiting p38 MAPK enhanced MafA stability in cells grown under both low and high concentrations of glucose. We also show that the N-terminal domain of MafA plays a major role in p38 MAPK-mediated degradation; simultaneous mutation of both threonines 57 and 134 into alanines in MafA was sufficient to prevent this degradation. Under oxidative stress, a condition detrimental to β-cell function, a decrease in MafA stability was associated with a concomitant increase in active p38 MAPK. Interestingly, inhibiting p38 MAPK but not glycogen synthase kinase 3 prevented oxidative stress-dependent degradation of MafA. These results suggest that the p38 MAPK pathway may represent a common mechanism for regulating MafA levels under oxidative stress and basal and stimulatory glucose concentrations. Therefore, preventing p38 MAPK-mediated degradation of MafA represents a novel approach to improve β-cell function.

  S. Kukshal , B.P. Nautiyal , A. Anthwal , A. Sharma and A.B. Bhatt
  ┬áIn temperate region of Northwest Himalaya, drier slopes are dominated by Pinus roxburghii and are known for rich ground herbaceous flora predominated by grasses. These regions serve as grazingland for livestock and cattle. Present study deals with vegetation analysis, phytosociology and life form pattern of such grazingland between 1100-1400 m a.s.l. across the altitudinal gradient and varying slopes. Capillipedium parviflorum is identified as dominant species based on Importance value index, although the area is exhibited by large number of herbs in comparison to grasses and sedges. Vegetation of the area is contagiously distributed and predominantely represented by therophytes and geophytes indicating the degree of anthropogenic activities. The native vegetation is disturbed by overgrazing and life forms of the flora of each of the association are maintained by the intensity of grazing. In the sites under observations, besides grazing, fire was main detrimental factor for dominating the flora by therophytes. Codominance of geophytes may be assigned to its propagation through underground perennating organs as the fire type in these ecosystems is crown fire type. The study describe all these features.
  R. Maan , N. Kataria , P.K. Pilania , A. Sharma , S. Arora , A. Joshi , L.N. Sankhala , S.K. Sharma , N. Mohammad , P. Nathawat and A.K. Kataria
  Serum Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) profiling was carried out in the Marwari breed of sheep from arid tracts in India. Animals were categorized according to sex and age. Blood samples were collected during moderate, extreme hot and cold ambiences to harvest sera. Mean value of serum SOD during moderate ambience was 171.76±2.72 kU L-1. Moderate mean value was considered as control. The mean value of serum SOD was significantly (p≤0.05) higher during hot and cold ambiences as compared to control. Mean value was 2.57 times higher in hot ambience and 1.54 times higher in cold ambience as compared to control. The sex and age effects were significant (p≤0.05) in all ambiences. The mean values were significantly (p≤0.05) higher in male animals than female animals. In each ambience the age effect showed a significant (p≤0.05) increase in the mean values being highest in the animals of 2.5-4.5 years of age. Increased SOD activities during extreme ambiences indicated the development of oxidative stress. Present study generated data of SOD which can be used as reference values for future studies and for diagnostic purposes. The pattern of variation of SOD activity indicated modulation of adaptive mechanisms to protect the body from changes in ambient temperatures and on this basis use of antioxidants in the animals during changing environments is recommended.
  N. Kataria , Abhimanu , S. Arora , A. Sharma , R. Maan , S. Soren , A.K. Kataria , N. Mohammad , P.K. Pilania , L.N. Sankhala , M.K. Thori , J.S. Gaur and A. Meena
  A study was carried out in male and female calves of Rathi breed belonging to arid tracts from India to find out status of free radical scavenging enzymes during hot ambience. Blood samples were collected during moderate and hot ambiences to harvest sera. Maximum ambient temperature ranged from 44.5-46.5°C during hot ambience. All calves were managed in similar conditions and were apparently healthy. Free radical scavenging enzymes included Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione Reductase (GR) and Catalase (CAT). The moderate (control) mean values of serum SOD, GR and CAT were 173.00±1.43, 11.00±0.09 and 74.80±1.00 kU L-1, respectively irrespective of gender and age. Similar pattern of significant change (p≤0.05) was observed by all the three enzymes in heat stressed calves being higher during hot ambience. The mean values were 2.67, 2 and 1.41 times higher, respectively in heat stressed calves during hot ambience. The sex and age effects were significant (p≤0.05) in moderate and hot ambiences for all the three enzymes. The mean values were significantly (p≤0.05) higher in male animals than female animals. In each ambience the age effect showed a significant (p≤0.05) increase in the mean values being highest in the calves of 6 months to 1 year of age. Results clearly indicated that status of free radical enzymes changed in heat stressed calves probably to scavenge higher number of free radicals formed during hot ambience. All the three enzymes used are important biomarkers of oxidative stress. Present study provided data which can be used as reference values to assess the extent of oxidative stress. This will help in timely protection of calves from ensuing health disorders.
  A. Sharma , N. Kataria , N. Arya , M. Mathur , R. Maan , A. Joshi , Abhimanu , L.N. Sankhala , T. Bhati and A.K. Kataria
  A study was conducted to assess modulations in gluconeogenesis in Marwari goat of both sexes ageing 6 months to 4.5 years during moderate, hot and cold environmental temperature periods. Liver samples were collected to determine Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (PEPCK), Glucose-6-Phosphatase (Glc-6-Pase), Aspartate amino Transferase (AST) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) enzymes. Moderate mean values of liver tissue PEPCK, Glc-6-Pase, AST and ALT were 562.00±7.25 U g-1, 160.00±4.25 mU g-1, 3.6±0.02 U g-1 and 2.6±0.01 U g-1, respectively. The mean values were significantly (p≤0.05) higher during hot and cold environmental temperatures in comparison to moderate mean value in each case. The sex and age effects were significant (p≤0.05) in all the environmental temperatures for all the four enzymes and pattern of variation was similar. The mean values were significantly (p≤0.05) higher in female animals than male animals. Age effect showed a significant (p≤0.05) increase in the mean values being highest in the animals of 2-4.5 years of age. Variation in the activities of all the enzymes studied clearly indicated the greater effect of hot environmental temperature on the modulation of gluconeogenesis. Hot period related change was maximum in the activity of PEPCK (4.29 fold) followed by Glc-6-Pase (3.5 fold), ALT (2.92 fold) and AST (2.38 fold). PEPCK and Glc-6-Pase are important enzymes of gluconeogenesis. Enhanced activities of these two enzymes showed adaptive response to combat the stress of environmental temperature through increased glucose production.
  A. Joshi , N. Kataria , S. Sharma , A. Sharma , S. Arora , Abhimanu , R. Maan , S. Asopa , N. Arya , S. Khan and A.K. Kataria
  Present investigation was launched to detect oxidative stress in pregnant and non-pregnant Murrah buffaloes during extreme ambiences. Serum oxidase and peroxidase profiling was used as a tool to detect oxidative stress. Blood samples of apparently healthy adult female Murrah buffaloes were collected to harvest sera during extreme hot cold and moderate ambiences. Moderate mean value of serum oxidase was 50.32±1.21 UL-1 and of serum peroxidase was 49.51±1.11 mUL-1. Extreme hot and cold ambiences resulted into a significant (p≤0.05) rise in the activities of serum oxidase and peroxidase. Animals were classified as non pregnant milch, pregnant milch and pregnant dry and activities of both the enzymes were compared. It was observed that mean values of both the enzymes in non-pregnant milch, pregnant milch and pregnant dry differed significantly (p≤0.05) from each other, respectively in all the ambiences. Non pregnant milch animals showed lowest activities whereas pregnant dry animals exhibited highest activities of both the enzymes. Multipara animals showed significantly (p≤0.05) higher activities than primipara. Serum oxidase and peroxidase are considered as important markers to assess oxidative stress. Increased activities of both the enzymes reflected the presence of oxidative stress in the buffaloes. It was concluded that extreme ambiences resulted into oxidative stress affecting the animals of all the physiological states. In each ambience the magnitude of increase was greater in pregnant dry animals. Trend was similar in all the ambiences but impact was maximum during hot ambience. Multipara animals showed greater changes than primipara. It can be stated that multipara and pregnant dry animals require proper care and supplementation of immuno-nutrients in order to protect them from the ensuing risk of oxidative stress. Further serum oxidase and peroxidase activities can be used effectively in detection of oxidative stress.
  R. Maan , N. Kataria , S. Sharma , S. Arora , A. Sharma , A. Joshi , N. Mohammad , P.K. Pilania and L.N. Sankhala
  Serum Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) activities were determined in the Marwari breed of sheep from arid tracts in India during extreme ambient temperature periods. Animals were categorised according to sex and age. Blood samples were collected during moderate, extreme hot and cold ambient temperatures to harvest sera. The overall mean value of MAO was 288.88±5.10 U L-1 which was obtained from 630 animals irrespective of sex and age. The range was 102-600 U L-1. Further mean values were determined according to ambient temperatures irrespective of sex and age. Moderate overall mean value was 162.14±4.61 U L-1 which was obtained from 210 animals during moderate ambience. The mean value of serum MAO was significantly (p≤0.05) higher during hot and cold ambient temperatures as compared to moderate mean value. The sex and age effects were significant (p≤0.05) in all ambient temperatures. The mean values were significantly (p≤0.05) higher in male animals than female animals. Age effect showed a significant (p≤0.05) increase in the mean values being highest in the animals of 2.5-4.5 years of age. The sex and age effects were significant (p≤0.05) in all ambient temperatures. Pattern of variations in serum MAO activities indicated that oxidative stress developed in sheep due to extreme ambient temperatures. Impact of hot ambient temperature was greater than cold ambient temperature.
 
 
 
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