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Articles by A. Sarkaki
Total Records ( 8 ) for A. Sarkaki
  F. Rahim , B. Keikhaei , A. Sarkaki and A.H. Doulah
  The present study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of right-unilateral lesion of substantia nigra neurons by means of Ibotenic acid, a cholinergic-selective neurotoxin, on hematological parameters in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats weighing 200±50 g at the start of the experiment were used. The substantia nigra was right-unilateral lesioned by stereotaxic microinjections of ibotonic acid. Seven days after neurosurgery, we assessed the total number of White Blood Cells (WBC), the total number of Red Blood Cells (RBC), Red Cell Distribution (RDW), platelet and hemoglobin level and the erythrocyte indexes (Mean Cell Volume, (MCV), Mean Cell Hemoglobin,(MCH), Mean Cell Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC)). Ibotenic acid treatment induced a highly significantly decrease of white blood cells, followed by significant decrease in red blood cells and hemoglobin level comparative with sham-operated rats. Also in the ibotenic acid-lesioned rats the erythrocyte indexes (Mean Cell Volume, MCV; Mean Cell Hemoglobin, MCH were significantly decreased comparative with sham-operated rats. By contrast, platelets, mean cell hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell distribution width were significantly increased in the ibotonic-acid lesioned rat versus sham-operated animals. On the whole, the obtained data indicate the important role of the central nerves system in the regulation of erythrocyte dynamics.
  M. Badavi , H.A. Abedi , M. Dianat and A. Sarkaki
  Endothelial dysfunction represents a hallmark of diabetic vascular complications. Although, regular exercise training or antioxidants could prevent these complications to some extent, the effects of grape seed extract as an antioxidant alone or combined with exercise on the diabetic induced endothelial dysfunction was not investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the combined effect of grape seed extract and exercise training on vascular endothelial function in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Forty five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: Sedentary control, sedentary diabetic, trained diabetic and sedentary or trained diabetic that received 200 mg kg-1grape seed extract. Eight weeks after diabetes induction by streptozotocin (60 mg kg-1) the body weight and blood glucose were measured and mesenteric vascular bed responses to vasoactive agents (acetylcholine, phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside) were determined. The data have shown that the weight gain, plasma antioxidant capacity and endothelium dependent vasorelaxation to acetylcholine reduced significantly in diabetic animals. However, exercise training combined with grape seed extract improve body weight gain, increase plasma antioxidant capacity, decrease blood glucose and restores vasodilatory response to acetylcholine more significant than exercise training or grape seed extract alone. On the other hand, the vasoconstrictive response to phenylephrine and vasodilatory response to sodium nitroprusside did not change significantly. The data indicated that exercise training and grape seed extract combination had more significant improving effects on endothelial dysfunction than exercise training or grape seed extract alone and may constitute convenient and inexpensive therapeutic approach to diabetic vascular complications.
  H.R. Sameni , M. Panahi , A. Sarkaki , G.H. Saki and M. Makvandi
  This study was conducted to investigate the neuroprotective effects of progesterone (PROG) on electrophysiological and histomorphometrical alternation in STZ-induced diabetic neuropathy starting from 4 weeks after the diabetic induction. Thirty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (with 10 rats in each), control (nondiabetic), untreated diabetic and diabetic PROG-treated. Diabetes was induced in adult male rats by a single dose injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg kg-1, i.p.). In the PROG-treated group, 4 weeks after induce of diabetes; rats were treated with PROG (8 mg kg-1, i.p., every two days) for 6 weeks. Diabetic rats showed a significant reduction in motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), mean myelinated fibers (MFs) diameter, axon diameter and myelin sheath thickness in the sciatic nerve after 6 weeks. In the untreated diabetic group endoneurial edema was observed in sciatic nerve and the numbers of MFs with infolding into the axoplasm, irregularity of fibers, myelin sheath with unclear boundaries and alteration in myelin compaction were also increased. Long-term treatment with PROG increased MNCV significantly and prevented all these abnormalities in treated diabetic rats. Our findings indicated that PROG as a therapeutic approach can protect neurophysiologic and histomorphologic alterations induced by peripheral diabetic neuropathy.
  A. Sarkaki , S. Zahedi Asl and R. Assaei
  Aim of this research was to study the effect of intrahippocampal injection of different doses of AlCl3 in adult male rats on active avoidance learning. Thirty five adult male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were used into five groups: (1) Control, (2) Test-I received daily 1 μL AlCl3 1%, pH = 7.2, 3); Test-II received daily 1 μL AlCl3 0.5%, pH = 3.4, 4); Sham-I received daily 1 μL aCSF, pH = 7.2, 5); Sham-II received daily 1 μL aCSF, pH = 3.4. All rats in test and sham groups treated 10 min before training. Animals were anaesthetized with ketamine HCl/xylazine (90/10 mg kg-1 b.wt-1, i.p.) and underwent a stereotaxic surgery for implant of two stainless steel guide cannula into the hippocampus bilaterally. Every day 10 min after above treatments all rats were used to assess the spatial learning performing using Y-maze. Criterion Correct Response (CCR) was 90% in last session of training. There were no significant differences between training sessions to receiving CCR in control, Sham-I and Sham-II groups. Cognition in animals received AlCl3 1%, pH = 7.2 was impaired significantly with compare to other groups (*p<0.0001). Present results show that intrahippocampal injection of AlCl3 1%, causes active avoidance learning impairment significantly. The exact mechanism of Al3 effect on brain and cognition is remains unknown.
  K. Saadipour , A. Sarkaki , H. Alaei , M. Badavi and F. Rahim
  The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term forced exercise protocol on passive avoidance retention in morphine-exposed rats. Effects of morphine on acquisition and retrieval of retention have been proven in the avoidance paradigms. Twenty four male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used in this study. Animals were randomly divided into four groups including: (1) non-morphine-exposed without exercise (nA.nE) (2) non-morphine-exposed with exercise (nA.E) (3) morphine-exposed without exercise (A.nE) and (4) morphine-exposed with exercise (A.E). Rats ran as forced exercise on the motorized treadmill 1 h daily for ten days. Morphine-exposed animals received intraperitoneal morphine during first 5 days of the exercise period and their dependence to morphine was confirmed by naloxane admistration (10 mg kg-1, i.p.) and withdrawal test. After 10 days of forced exercise, step down latency was tested and Inflexion Ratio (IR) was evaluated in each rat. Baseline step down latencies before any morphine exposing or exercise have shown no significant alteration in all groups. Inflexion Ratio (IR) of nA.E group has increased significantly (p<0.001) at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after receiving shock (learning) compared to nA.nE and A.E groups. Our data showed that short-term forced exercise on treadmill improved retention in both morphine-exposed and non morphine-exposed rats at least up to 7 days and more than 14 days, respectively. Alteration in retention between exercised groups may attribute the release of adrenal stress hormones such as epinephrine and corticosterone because of the emotional arousal.
  M. Malek , S. Zahedi Asl , A. Sarkaki , Y. Farbood and A.H. Doulah
  The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intra-hippocampal injection of Growth Hormone (GH) on impaired spatial cognition in rats with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Growth hormone replacement therapy leading to improved cognition and well-being has mainly been carried in GH-deficient patients. Neverthelss, relatively only a few studies have investigated the function of GH in the brain. Aged Wistar male rats (350-400 g, 18-20 months old) were randomly divided into 6 groups (7 in each): Control (healthy aged); L; L+Veh; L+GH10; L+GH20 and L+GH40. Rats with AD-like cognitive deficiency was induced by injection of ibotenic acid into Nucleus Basalis of Meynert (NBM) bilaterally (5 μg 0.5 μL-1, each side). A guide cannula was implanted in the right hippocampus under stereotaxic surgery for injection of human recombinant GH (10, 20 and 40 μg 2 μL-1, during 5 min, twice daily, 9:00 am and 3:00 pm, for 7 days). All rats were trained in Morris water maze to evaluate the spatial learning and memory. Escape latency, traveled distance to find hidden platform and percent time spent in gaol qudrant did not differ between L and L+Veh groups, while latency and distance were reduced significantly. But percent time spent in gaol quadrant (without hidden platform) was increased significantly in NBM-lesioned rats treated with GH (L+GH groups) dose dependently to compare with vehicle treated group. These results suggest that intra-hippocampal injection of GH to aged rats with dementia type of AD (with NBM lesioned) could improve spatial cognition.
  A. Sarkaki , M. Badavi , H. Aligholi and A. Zand Moghaddam
  The aim of the present study was to investigate the preventive effect of 4 weeks soy meal (±isoflavone) on post-menopausal cognitive deficiency and body weight alteration in ovariectomized (OVX)-6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA)-induced animal model of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) which mimics status in menopause women. Female Wistar rats (250-300 g, 5-6 months old) were divided into 2 main groups. (1) Control; (2) OVX; included 5 subgroups that were pre-treated with 10 or 20 g soy with isoflavone in 30 g daily diet (10 and 20 groups, respectively), 10 or 20 g soy without isoflavone in 30 g daily diet (-10 and -20 groups, respectively) and 0 g soy (sham treated group) during 4 weeks after OVX. To induce animal model of PD in main second group (OVX rats) the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) was lesioned by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) (8 μg kg-1 4 μL-1 normal saline contains 0.1% ascorbate). All animals were trained in Morris water maze for evaluating the spatial learning and memory. The results indicated that pre-treatment of Parkinsonian rats with different doses of dietary soy meal (±isoflavone) improved the spatial learning and memory and prevents increasing the body weight after menopause significantly. Our data show that, long-duration dietary soy meal may have the potential neuroprotective effect against post-menopausal cognitive deficiency induced by degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic system and constant body weight during post-menopausal life cycle.
  A. Sarkaki , H. Fathimoghaddam , S.M.T. Mansouri , M. Shahrani Korrani , G. Saki and Y. Farbood
  Cerebral Hypoperfusion Ischemia (CHI) has important role in neuronal damage and behavioral deficits, including memory and Long-term Potentiation (LTP) impairment. Protective effects of Gallic Acid (GA) on memory, hippocampus LTP and cell viability were examined in permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion in rats. Animals were divided into 9 groups: Control (Cont); sham operated (Sho); Cerebral Hypoperfusion Ischemia (CHI); CHI received normal saline (CHI +Veh); CHI treated with different doses gallic acid (50, 100, 200 mg kg-1 for 5 days before and 5 days after CHI induction, orally); CHI treated with phenytoin (50 mg kg-1, ip) (CHI+Phe); and sham operated received 100 mg kg-1, orally (Sho+GA100). CHI was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO). Behavioral, electrophysiological and histological evaluations were performed. Data were analyzed by one-way and repeated measures ANOVA followed by tukey’s post-hoc test. GA improved passive avoidance memory, hippocampal LTP and cell viability in hippocampus and cortex of ischemic rats significantly (p<0.01). The results suggest that gallic acid via its antioxidative and free radicals scavenging properties attenuates CHI induced behavioral and electrophysiological deficits and has significant protective effect on brain cell viability. Dose of 100 mg kg-1 GA has affected the ischemic but not intact rats and its effect was more potent significantly than phenytoin, a routine drug for ischemic subjects.
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