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Articles by A. Sandbaek
Total Records ( 4 ) for A. Sandbaek
  E-M. Dalsgaard , T. Lauritzen , T. Christiansen , K. S. Mai , K. Borch-Johnsen and A. Sandbaek

Aims The prevalence of diabetes is increasing, and screening of high-risk populations is recommended. A low attendance rate has been observed in many Type 2 diabetes screening programmes, so that an analysis of factors related to attendance is therefore relevant. This paper analyses the association between socioeconomic factors and attendance for Type 2 diabetes screening.

Methods Persons aged 40–69 years (n = 4603) were invited to participate in a stepwise diabetes screening programme performed in general practitioners' offices in the county of Aarhus, Denmark in 2001. The study was population-based and cross-sectional with follow-up. The association between screening attendance in the high-risk population and socioeconomic factors was analysed by odds ratio.

Results Forty-four percent of the estimated high-risk population attended the screening programme. In those with known risk for Type 2 diabetes, attenders were more likely to be older, to be unemployed and to live in the countryside than non-attenders. The risk for Type 2 diabetes was unknown for 21% of the study population; this group was younger and less likely to be cohabitant, skilled, or employed and to have middle or high income than the study population with known risk score for diabetes.

Conclusions A low attendance rate was found in this screening programme for Type 2 diabetes. No substantial socioeconomic difference was found between attenders and non-attenders in the high-risk population. Further research is needed to uncover barriers to screening of Type 2 diabetes in socioeconomically deprived persons.

  M. van den Donk , A. Sandbaek , K. Borch-Johnsen , T. Lauritzen , R. K. Simmons , N. J. Wareham , S. J. Griffin , M. J. Davies , K. Khunti and G. E. H. M. Rutten
  Aims  To describe and compare attendance rates and the proportions of people identified with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in people with previously unknown diabetes who participated in screening programmes undertaken in general practice in the UK, Denmark and the Netherlands as part of the ADDITION-Europe study.

Methods  In Cambridge, routine computer data searches were conducted to identify individuals aged 40-69 years at high risk of Type 2 diabetes using the Cambridge Diabetes Risk Score. In Denmark, the Danish Diabetes Risk Score was mailed to individuals aged 40-69 years, or completed by patients visiting their general practitice. In the Netherlands, the Hoorn Symptom Risk Questionnaire was mailed to individuals aged 50-69 years. In these three centres, high-risk individuals were invited to attend subsequent steps in the screening programme, including random blood glucose, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose and/or oral glucose tolerance test. In Leicester, eligible people aged 40-69 years were invited directly for an oral glucose tolerance test. In all centres, Type 2 diabetes was defined according to World Health Organization 1999 diagnostic criteria.

Results  Attendance rates ranged from 20.2% (oral glucose tolerance test in Leicester without pre-stratification) to 95.1% (random blood glucose in opportunistic screening in Denmark in high-risk people). The percentage of people with newly detected Type 2 diabetes from the target population ranged from 0.33% (Leicester) to 1.09% (the Netherlands).

Conclusions  Screening for Type 2 diabetes was acceptable and feasible, but relatively few participants were diagnosed in all participating centres. Different strategies may be required to increase initial attendance and ensure completion of screening programmes.

  J. A. Black , S. J. Sharp , N. J. Wareham , A. Sandbaek , G. E. H. M. Rutten , T. Lauritzen , K. Khunti , M. J. Davies , K. Borch-Johnsen , S. J. Griffin and R. K. Simmons


Little is known about the long-term effects of intensive multifactorial treatment early in the diabetes disease trajectory. In the absence of long-term data on hard outcomes, we described change in 10-year modelled cardiovascular risk in the 5 years following diagnosis, and quantified the impact of intensive treatment on 10-year modelled cardiovascular risk at 5 years.


In a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, parallel-group trial in Denmark, the Netherlands and the UK, 3057 people with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes were randomized by general practice to receive (1) routine care of diabetes according to national guidelines (1379 patients) or (2) intensive multifactorial target-driven management (1678 patients). Ten-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was calculated at baseline and 5 years using the UK Prospective Diabetes Study Risk Engine (version 3β).


Among 2101 individuals with complete data at follow up (73.4%), 10-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was 27.3% (sd 13.9) at baseline and 21.3% (sd 13.8) at 5-year follow-up (intensive treatment group difference -6.9, sd 9.0; routine care group difference -5.0, sd 12.2). Modelled 10-year cardiovascular disease risk was lower in the intensive treatment group compared with the routine care group at 5 years, after adjustment for baseline cardiovascular disease risk and clustering (-2.0; 95% CI -3.1 to -0.9).


Despite increasing age and diabetes duration, there was a decline in modelled cardiovascular disease risk in the 5 years following diagnosis. Compared with routine care, 10-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was lower in the intensive treatment group at 5 years. Our results suggest that patients benefit from intensive treatment early in the diabetes disease trajectory, where the rate of cardiovascular disease risk progression may be slowed.

  H. T. Maindal , A. H. Carlsen , T. Lauritzen , A. Sandbaek and R. K. Simmons


To assess whether a 12-week participant-driven health education programme offered to individuals with screening-detected hyperglycaemia in Danish primary care would lead to improvements in cardiovascular risk factors, health behaviour and patient-reported outcomes after 3 years.


We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 509 patients with screening-detected hyperglycaemia (impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance or Type 2 diabetes) from 33 general practices in Denmark. Individuals were pre-randomized to receive (i) routine care (n = 187), or (ii) an invitation to participate in the Ready to Act health education programme (n = 322). The programme was delivered over 12 weeks in primary care and focused on motivation, action experience, informed decision-making and social involvement to promote health behaviour change. The primary outcome was 10-year modelled cardiovascular risk.


Of 322 individuals, 123 (38%) received the intervention and 436/509 individuals (86%) returned for follow-up assessment. There was no difference between the trial groups in modelled cardiovascular risk at 3 years (relative difference: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.84 to 1.23). Total cholesterol was lower (−0.24mmol/l, 95% CI: −0.45 to −0.03, P = 0.027), and patient activation was higher in the intervention than in the control group (5.3, 95% CI: 0.97 to 9.7). No other between-group differences were observed for any cardiovascular risk factor, health behaviour or patient-reported outcome variables. Subgroup analyses suggested that the intervention was more beneficial in those with impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance than in those with Type 2 diabetes.


For patients with screening-detected hyperglycaemia, a participant-driven health education programme was not associated with improvements in most clinical, behavioural and patient-reported outcomes after 3 years of follow-up.

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