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Articles by A. Rashid
Total Records ( 3 ) for A. Rashid
  S.F. Shaukat , R. Farooq , M.A.U. Khan , A. Rashid and Y. Dong
  The optical and electrical properties of Copper-Indium-Selenium (CIS) thin films have been investigated using various experimental techniques. These compounds are extensively used in solar cell technology due to their exciting characteristics. CIS thin films have been grown onto glass substrates by a Stacked Element Layer (SEL) deposition technique in vacuum. Optical transmission measurements on different compositions of CIS films are observed and the absorption coefficient is determined. The Van der Pauw technique is used to divulge the electrical characteristics of these films. The electrical conductivity is found relatively high for the films annealed in vacuum but decreases for the films synthesised optimally. It is observed that p-type films have higher conductivity than n-type films. The reaction temperature of CIS formation is 250°C in vacuum. These properties are of great significance in manufacturing solar sell devices.
  Mohammad Jamal Khan , H. Rashid , A. Rashid and R. Ali
  Performance of nine selected wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) was studied during 1995-1996 under saline field environments at village Gundhari, distt. Nowshera. Site soil is recent river alluvium, sandy loam to clay loam in texture, slightly to highly saline and irrigated with tubewell water of 4 dS m–1. Two adjacent fields were surveyed by EM 38 at 2×2 m to identify areas of uniform salinity. Increase of root zone salinity decreased progressively all the plant traits including grain yield and yield component. Grain and straw yield were reduced by 69 and 64 percent respectively at the highest salinity level. Salinity tolerance ranking of cultivars based on absolute grain yield was SARC 3 > Bakhtawar 92 > Kharchia 65 > Blue Silver > SARC 1 > WS 10 > Mutant 1 > KTDH 10 > TW 161. Leaf Na increased, K and K/Na ratio decreased significantly with increase of root zone salinity. Sodium exclusion and K/Na discriminatory accumulation in leaf had contributed salt tolerance to wheat crop but these relationship could not be established in all cultivars.
  A field study was conducted for two years at the Arid Zone Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan, to determine the optimum level of nitrogen and efficient application method in the production of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). Using four levels of nitrogen, i.e., 0, 60, 90, and 120 kg ha−1, and two different application methods (soil application and foliar spray), the experiment was laid out in a split-plot design, where the main plots were used to determine the effective method of application and the subplots were used to detect the influence of N levels on the grain yield. The average data obtained after two years of study indicated an increase in the grain yields with an increase in N levels irrespective of the method used of N application. The grain yield increased from 2.92 to 5.61 t ha−1 in the plots that were treated with 90 kg N ha−1 compared with the control plots. Quadratic regression analysis showed that the increase in the yield was higher at the lower levels of N compared with the succeeding higher levels. The soil application method, producing an average grain yield of 4.79 t ha−1, was found to be superior to the foliar spray method with an average grain yieldof4.56tha−1. The protein content of the grain showed a linear increase with N application, attaining the maximum at 120 kg N ha−1 in both the methods of N application. In addition, compared with the method of soil application, higher crude protein contents were observed using the method of foliar spray at all N levels.
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