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Articles by A. Patanothai
Total Records ( 21 ) for A. Patanothai
  R. Puttha , S. Jogloy , S. Wongkaew , J. Sanitchon , T. Kesmala and A. Patanothai
  The objectives of this study were to estimate heritability for PBNV resistance parameters and to determine phenotypic and genotypic correlations among PBNV resistance parameters and agronomic traits. One hundred and ninety two progenies in the F5 and F6 generations of peanut as well as their parents were evaluated under natural infection of PBNV in a randomized complete block design with six replications for two years. Additional experiment of the duplicated materials was also conducted for agronomic evaluation for one year using similar experimental procedures under conditions that favored optimum agronomic performance. Heritability estimates were low to relatively high for both disease incidence and disease severity, depending on crosses, ranging form 0.10 to 0.90 and 0.00 to 0.79, respectively. Phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficients for PBND incidence and PBND severity were high, ranging from 0.94** to 0.98** and 0.99** and 1.00**, respectively. Phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficients between PBNV resistance parameters and agronomic characters were generally low for most pairs of characters, except between PBNV resistance parameters and 100-seed weight for which it was moderate (0.42** to 0.60**) PBNV susceptibility is somewhat associated with larger seed and might hinder the progress of breeding for large-seeded peanut with resistance to PBNV.
  K. Niyomsil , S. Jogloy , M. Keerati-kasikorn , C. Akkasaeng , T. Kesmala and A. Patanothai
  As disease vectors and damaging pests, several thrips species are important for peanut production. Development of resistant cultivars is economical and sustainable mean to combat the problem. To achieve this goal, a better understanding of genetic control of thrips resistance is of paramount importance to the success of breeding programs. The objective of this study was to estimate relative importance of genetic parameters for total thrips number, number of adult thrips, number of larval thrips and leaf damage by thrips feeding, which might be indicative of thrips resistance in the three crosses of peanut, using generation means analysis. The experiment was conducted in a farmer’s field after rice harvest in Kalasin province in the Northeast of Thailand during dry season in 2002. Seven generations of three crosses were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with six replications under natural infestation of thrips population. Data of 50 days after planting (DAP) were reported for thrips number and data of 60, 70 and 80 DAP were reported for leaf damage. Dominance gene effect was significant in the cross ICGV 86388 x IC 10 for number of adult thrips and number of total thrips and in the cross ICGV 86388 x Khon Kaen 60-1 all genetic parameters estimated were not significant expect for dominance by dominance of adult thrip number. Additive gene effect was found in the cross IC 10 x Khon Kaen 60-1 for total thrips number. Additive x dominance epistatic gene effect was also found in the cross IC 10 x Khon Kaen 60-1 for total thrips number and larval thrips number, while dominance x dominance was expressed for adult thrips number. Additive genetic parameter for thrips damage was not significant for three sampling dates. Dominance and epistatic gene effects were significant in the cross IC 10 x Khon Kaen 60-1. Improvement of thrips resistance may be possible in the cross IC 10 x Khon Kaen 60-1 because of significant additive gene effect.
  P. Songsri , S. Jogloy , T. Kesmala , N. Vorasoot , C. Akkasaeng , A. Patanothai and C.C. Holbrook
  The aims of this study were to evaluate genetic variations in yield and reproductive developmental characters among peanut genotypes in response to drought and relate these responses to pod yield under different soil moisture. Eleven peanut genotypes were tested under three soil moisture levels [field capacity (FC), 2/3 available soil water (AW) and 1/3AW] in field experiments. Data were recorded for number of flowers, pegs (RSs), immature pods and mature pods per plant, seed per pod, 100-seed weight and pod yield at harvest. A drought tolerance index (DTI) for pod yield was calculated as the ratio of pod yield under stress treatment to that under well-watered conditions. The differences among water regimes were significant for pod yield, number of RSs, immature pods and mature pods per plant, seed per pod and 100 seed weight and differences among genotypes were significant for all traits. Drought reduced pod yield, number of RSs, pods and mature pods per plant. Early peak of flowering is important for the formation of mature pods under drought conditions. Two different strategies were used in maintaining high pod yield under drought. High yield potential was important for ICGV 98348 and ICGV 98353, whereas low pod yield reduction was important for ICGV 98305, ICGV 98303 and ICGV 98300. Tifton 8 showed the lowest pod yield and poor seed filling. High RSs and well-filled mature pods were the most important traits contributing to high pod yield in drought resistant genotypes.
  N. Jongrungklang , B. Toomsan , N. Vorasoot , S. Jogloy , T. Kesmala and A. Patanothai
  The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of drought stress on Total Dry Matter (TDM), pod yield, Water Use Efficiency (WUE), harvest index (HI), SPAD Chlorophyll Meter Readings (SCMR), Specific Leaf Area (SLA) and canopy temperature, to identify drought resistant peanut genotypes from a collection of peanut germplasm and to establish the relationships among drought resistance traits. Field experiments was conducted in a strip plot design with four water regimes (field capacity (FC), 25, 40 and 60 reduction percentage of amount of water regimes in FC) as main and sixty peanut genotypes as sub-treatments. Observations on TDM, pod yield and SLA were measured at harvest. SCMR and canopy temperature were recorded at 30, 60 and 90 day after emergence. WUE were computed using the data on amount of water input and TDM. HI was computed using the data on pod yield and TDM. The result showed that the effects of drought reduced TDM, pod dry weight, HI, WUE and SLA, but increased SCMR and canopy temperature. The correlation of WUE was positively related to SCMR under water limit conditions. The surrogate traits with well associated on WUE could be useful as selection criteria for drought tolerance. In this germplasm, the identical genotypes with high WUE in all of drought levels were Tifton-8, 14 PI 430238 and 205 PI 442925. KK 60-3, 101 PI 268659 only found high WUE in severe drought condition. The genotypes identified might be useful in future breeding programs for drought tolerance.
  A. Arunyanark , S. Jogloy , N. Vorasoot , C. Akkasaeng , T. Kesmala and A. Patanothai
  The objectives of this study were to examine the stability of SPAD (soil plant analysis development) chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR) and chlorophyll density, surrogate trait of drought tolerance in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and their relationships in different leaf positions at different times under different drought stress conditions. Chlorophyll density and SCMR varied depending on water regimes, times of sampling and genotypes, but water regime x genotype interactions were not significant for chlorophyll density and SCMR. The correlation coefficients between chlorophyll density and SCMR were positive and significant across irrigation treatments (r = 0.76**, 0.94** and 0.96**) and each water regime, plant age and leaf position (r = 0.31 to 0.99**). Interestingly, chlorophyll density and SCMR at different water regimes were also correlated significantly, indicating the stability of their relationship in different water regime conditions. The result suggest that evaluation of chlorophyll density by SCMR can be carried out at any water regime conditions in the second or third-fully expanded leaves after 40 days of crop growth. This confers a large flexibility to application of SCMR in breeding program for drought tolerance.
  M. Painawadee , S. Jogloy , T. Kesmala , C. Akkasaeng and A. Patanothai
  The aim of this study was to investigate whether some root characters and physiological characters are related to drought resistance in some elite germplasm lines earlier identified as drought resistant based on pod yield. Four peanut genotypes were tested in a pot experiment under two soil moisture levels [Field Capacity (FC) and 1/3 available water (1/3 AW)]. A 2x4 factorial experiment was laid out in RCBD with six replications. Data were recorded for Relative Water Content (RWC), Specific Leaf Area (SLA), SPAD Chlorophyll Meter Reading (SCMR), root and biomass at 70 days after planting. Root characters, biomass production, pod yield and Harvest Index (HI) were recorded at harvest and Drought Tolerance Index (DTI) for these traits were also calculated. Differences between water treatments were also significant for RWC, SLA, Root Dry Weight (RDW) and biomass but not significant for SCMR, harvest index and pod yield. Drought stress reduced RWC, SLA, RDW and biomass but had no significant effect on SCMR, harvest index and pod yield. Significant differences among peanut genotypes were found for SLA at both water treatments. ICGV 98353 had the lowest SLA at both water treatments. Peanut genotypes were significantly different for RDW and RWC at 1/3 AW only. KK 4 had the highest RDW. ICGV 98324 performed best for RWC and it also had the highest DTI for RWC. ICGV 98324 also had the highest SCMR, which was significantly different among peanut genotypes at FC.
  H. Wunna , S. Jogloy , B. Toomsan , J. Sanitchon and A. Patanothai
  The improvement of peanut for drought tolerance and high N2-fixation is the best way to enhance peanut production under drought condition. Besides, the heritability estimates of traits related N2-fixation and its genetic correlation with yield and drought tolerant traits are useful to formulate the effective breeding program under drought. Therefore, the aims of this study were to estimate the heritabilities (h2) and genotypic correlation (rG) among traits related to N2-fixation (TNf), yield and drought tolerant traits under early drought and non stressed condition. Ninety lines in the F4:8 generations from four peanut crosses were tested under Field Capacity (FC) and one-third Available Water (1/3 AW). Data were recorded for Nodules Dry Weight (NDW), Biomass Production (BM), Pods Yield (PY), number of pod plant-1, number of seed pod-1 and 100 seed weight at harvest. Specific Leaf Area (SLA), SPAD Chlorophyll Meter Reading (SCMR), Harvest Index (HI) and Drought Tolerance Index (DTI) of PY and BM were measured and calculated as drought tolerant traits. The h2 for BM, PY, number of pod plant-1 and 100 seed weight were high for all tested crosses under both water regimes. With exception of HI trait, high h2 estimates, also, were found for drought tolerant traits under both water regimes. The genotypic correlation (rG) between NDW and BM was positive highly significant under both 1/3 AW and FC. BM and PY showed high rG, whereas, BM and 100 seed weight showed moderate rG. Moderate rG was found between BM and SCMR 60 DAE under 1/3 AW and FC. Significant correlations between FC and early drought were found for BM indicating that selection of this trait could be done under both water regimes. BM is possible to select and breed for high N2-fixation, PY and possibly, drought tolerance because of high h2 and significant rG with PY and SCMR 60DAE.
  D. Puangbut , S. Jogloy , N. Vorasoot , C. Akkasaeng , T. Kesmala and A. Patanothai
  The objectives of the present study were to investigate the variability in yield responses of peanut genotypes subjected to Early Season Drought (ESD) and to evaluate characters associated with yield. The field experiment was conducted in the rainy and dry seasons. Eleven genotypes of peanut and two water regimes (field capacity and 1/3 available soil water) were laid out in split plot design with four replications. Where, water regimes were assigned in main plots and 11 peanut genotypes were laid out in subplots. Imposition of ESD following re-watering resulted in an increase of pod yield compared to the irrigated treatment. Significant genotypic differences in yield response in relation to ESD were observed in this study and this could be useful in selecting desired genotypes in peanut breeding program. The highest pod yields were found in ICGV 98303 and Tainan 9 in the rainy season, whereas, in the dry season, ICGV 98303 was still highest for pod yield followed by ICGV 98300. After re-watering, SPAD chlorophyll meter reading, leaf area index and biomass productions were increased. Thus, increase in yield was associated with high biomass production after recovery combined with great green leaf area and concentration of leaf chlorophyll.
  M. Painawadee , S. Jogloy , T. Kesmala , C. Akkasaeng and A. Patanothai
  Several physio-morphological traits are related to pod yield of peanut. Improvement of these traits should lead to yield increase under drought conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate (1) heritability of drought resistance traits, yield and yield components and (2) relationships among these traits. A cross of two parents (ICGV 98324 and KK 4) differing in physio-morphological traits was used in this study. Pot experiments of F2 and F3 populations were set up in the open field with rainout shelters. One hundred and twenty eight entries were subjected to water stress during 28 to 70 days after sowing and evaluation of the studied characters was conducted at appropriate time. Data were recorded for Root Dry Weight (RDW), Root Length (RL), Root Surface (RS), Root Volume (RV), Specific Leaf Area (SLA), SPAD Chlorophyll Meter Reading (SCMR), biomass, pod yield, pod number per plant, seed number per pod, 100-seed weight and Harvest Index (HI). Heritability estimates in broad sense for root characters and drought resistance traits were low to intermediate, ranging from 0.27 to 0.59. Similarly, low to intermediate heritability estimates in broad sense were found for pod yield and yield components, ranging from 0.20 to 0.57. Heritability estimates in narrow sense were much lower than in broad sense. The correlation coefficients among root characters were inter-related positively, whereas negative correlation coefficients were observed among physiological characters. Root characters were closely related to biomass production but they were not related to yield and yield components except for pod number per plant.
  P. Songsri , N. Vorasoot , S. Jogloy , T. Kesmala , C. Akkasaeng , A. Patanothai and C.C. Holbrook
  The aim of this study was to evaluate the responses to difference in available soil water levels for yield and reproductive characters of peanut genotypes and relate these responses to pod yield under drought conditions. Eleven peanut genotypes were tested under three soil moisture levels (Field Capacity (FC), 2/3 available soil water (AW) and 1/3AW). Data were recorded for total number of flowers, pegs (reproductive sinks; RSs), immature pods and mature pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 100-seed weight and pod yield at harvest. Drought at mild and severe levels significantly reduced Harvest Index (HI), yield components and reproductive developmental characters and the reductions were most substantial for pod yield with increasing moisture stress. High pod yield under drought conditions in ICGV 98300 was caused by high potential yield and low yield reduction, whereas high pod yield in ICGV 98324 was due to low pod yield reduction. High HI and numbers of mature pods are advantageous and necessary for high yield under drought conditions. High conversion of RSs to total pods and conversion of flowers to mature pods were the most important factors contributing to high pod yield under mild drought (2/3 AW) and severe drought (1/3 AW), respectively. Tifton 8 showed the lowest pod yield and poor seed filling under well-watered and droughts conditions.
  W. Pimsaen , S. Jogloy , B. Suriharn , T. Kesmala , V. Pensuk and A. Patanothai
  Inulin containing tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) can be used as raw material for healthy products, sweeteners, bio-ethanol and animal feed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cultivar, environment and cultivarxenvironment interaction on fresh tuber yield tuber number and tuber size of Jerusalem artichoke. Fifteen cultivars were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with four replications at nine environments in the Northeast of Thailand. Differences among cultivars were observed for fresh tuber yield, tuber number and weight of individual tubers (tuber size). Environment effect contributed to a larger portion of variations in fresh tuber yield, tuber number and tuber size. Although, genotypex environment interactions were also significant, their values were much smaller than genotype main effects for all characters. Stability parameters indicated that exploitation of superior cultivars with adaptation to a wide range of environments and the cultivars with specific adaptation to specific environments would be possible. Low correlation but significant was found for fresh tuber yield and tuber number, indicating that tuber yield in some cultivars was dependent on high tuber number. Strong correlation between fresh tuber yield and tuber size indicated that bigger tuber is necessary to obtain higher tuber yield. Negative but significant correlation between tuber number and tuber size indicated that increased tuber size is on the expense of tuber number. JA 89 was the most promising cultivar for wide adaptation and high tuber yield, whereas HEL 65 was the most promising cultivar for its bigger tubers and acceptable yield.
  R. Sennoi , S. Jogloy , W. Saksirirat and A. Patanothai
  Stem rot disease caused by Sclerotium rolfsii can cause severe yield losses of Jerusalem artichoke. Pathogenicity of S. rolfsii in Jerusalem artichoke has not been well-researched especially in the semi-arid tropics. The objective of this study was to test pathogenicity of different isolates of S. rolfsii in Jerusalem artichoke. Ten isolates of S. rolfsii and three varieties of Jerusalem artichoke (JA 89, HEL 65 and CN 52867) were assigned in factorial experimental design. Plants were inoculated by spreading 20 seeds (0.6 g) of sorghum-based inoculums around the stems at 6-8 leaf stage. A non inoculated treatment is also included as control. The interactions between isolate and variety were not significant for all characters. The isolates were significantly different for disease incidence, Area under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC), days to permanent wilting, plant height and shoot dry weight. The reactions of most isolates were aggressive except for the isolates 2 and 7. HEL 65 exhibited low disease incidence and AUDPC.
  S. Boontang , P. Songsri , S. Jogloy , C. Akkasaeng , N. Vorasoot , N. Tantisuwichwong and A. Patanothai
  Objective of this study was to investigate whether physiological traits related to drought tolerance can correctly identify the peanut genotypes with high yield under water-limited conditions. Seven released cultivars and two drought tolerant lines were arranged in a split plot design with four replications for two years. The two water regimes (field capacity; FC and 2/3 available water; 2/3 AW.) were assigned in main plots and peanut genotypes were assigned in subplots. The data were recorded for SPAD Chlorophyll Meter Reading (SCMR), Specific Leaf Weight (SLW), biomass, pod yield, harvest index (HI), number of mature pods, shelling percentage, 100-seed weight and number of seeds per pod. SLW and SCMR could effectively identify peanut cultivars with higher pod yield under water-limited conditions. KK 60-3, KKU 72-1 and KKU 60 were identified as drought tolerant because they had SCMR and SLW, which were similar to those of ICGV 98324 and ICGV 98308. KK 60-3 had high biomass under water limited conditions because of high potential but it had poor pod yield, whereas KKU 60 had the highest pod yield and HI. KKU 60 also had the highest pod yield under well-watered conditions. The results indicated that some released cultivars had degree of drought tolerance similar to or better than that of the drought tolerant lines. The improvement of peanut cultivars for drought tolerance can be site-specific.
  S. Boontang , T. Girdthai , S. Jogloy , C. Akkasaeng , N. Vorasoot , A. Patanothai and N. Tantisuwichwong
  The use of the surrogate traits with simple inheritance as selection criteria for drought tolerance should speed up the selection programs. The objectives of this study were to investigate the responses of released cultivars of peanut to end of season drought for traits related to drought tolerance and agronomics traits and to identify the released cultivars with tolerance to end of season drought. Ten peanut genotypes and two water regimes (field capacity; FC and 1/3 available water; 1/3 AW) were laid out in a split plot design with four replications for two years. The data were recorded for SPAD chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR), Specific leaf weight (SLW), biomass, pod yield, harvest index (HI), number of mature pods, 100-seed weight and number of seeds per pod. Drought increased SCMR and SLW and reduced biomass production, pod yield and seed size, whereas harvest index and number of pods per plants were not significantly affected. Maintaining high pod yield and number of pods per plant depended solely on high potential under well-watered conditions, whereas maintaining high biomass production and seed size and harvest index was dependent on both high potential and low reduction. SCMR and SLW were well associated and they had high correlations with biomass and pod yield. SCMR seemed to be more stable than SLW and it is recommended to be used as a surrogate trait for drought tolerance in peanut. The released cultivar KKU 60 was identified as drought tolerant by SCMR and SLW and by pod yield.
  S. Pimratch , S. Jogloy , N. Vorasoot , B. Toomsan , T. Kesmala , A. Patanothai and C.C. Holbrook
  Twelve peanut genotypes were tested under three water regimes in two greenhouses to investigate the effects of drought on biomass production and N2 fixation. Drought reduced biomass production from 36.5 to 56.0% and reduced nitrogen fixation from 26.8 to 68.8%. Most genotypes with high biomass production under Field Capacity (FC) had high reduction in biomass production under drought conditions, but fewer genotypes with high N2 fixed under FC showed high reduction in N2 fixed. Biomass production under FC in general gave more contribution to biomass production under drought conditions than did the reduction. N2 fixed under FC and the reduction in N2 fixed contributed similarly to N2 fixed under drought conditions. Positive and significant correlations between N2 fixed and biomass production were found at FC and 2/3 available soil water (AW), but the correlation was not significant at 1/3 AW. Tifton-8 was the best genotype for high N2 fixed under FC and KK 60-3 was the best genotype for low reduction. Correlations between N2 fixed and nodule dry weight and shoot dry weight were high and consistent across water regimes. This information is important for breeders to develop peanut cultivars with reasonably high nitrogen fixation under drought conditions.
  S. Ekvised , S. Jogloy , C. Akkasaeng , M. Keerati- kasikorn , T. Kesmala , I. Buddhasimma and A. Patanothai
  Selection of an efficient, simple and accurate screening method is important in a varietal evaluation program. The objective of this study was to evaluate reactions of peanut lines to natural thrips infestation using thrips number parameters and thrips damage parameters to identify which parameters were consistent and most suitable in separating the difference of peanut lines. Another objective was to evaluate appropriate assessment times. A randomized complete block design with six replications was used at three environments. Data were recorded for adult thrips number. Juvenile thrips number, total thrips number, Percentage of damaged plants, percentage of damaged leaves and thrips damage rating at 30, 0, 0, 0 and 70 Days After Planting (DAP). Sticky traps were also used to monitor thrips abundance in environment 3 and found that Scirtothrips dorsalis was the most abundant species accounting for 48.7% of total adult thrips number. Differences among cultivars for adult thrips number and total thrips number were observed at 40, 0, 0 and 70 DAP, but not at 30 DAP. Differences among cultivars for juvenile thrips number were observed at 60 and 70 DAP. The differences among cultivars for thrips number were less consistent across evaluation dates. The most appropriate assessment times for thrips number would be between 50 to 70 DAP. It would be difficult to identify thrips resistant lines by using thrips number as selection criterion. Differences among cultivars for percentage of damaged plants were observed at 30, 0, 0 and 60 DAP, but not at 70 DAP. Appropriate assessment times would be at 30 to 50 DAP. Differences among cultivars for percentage of damaged leaves and thrips damage rating were quite similar and observed at 30 to 70 DAP. Appropriate assessment times would be at later evaluation dates (50 to 70 DAP). Plant damage parameters are more useful than thrips number in identifying differences among peanut cultivars. These parameters are more consistent across evaluation dates and years and should be promising for use as selection criteria for thrips resistance in peanut. Among tested cultivars, IC 10 showed the lowest thrips number and plant damage.
  W. Putto , A. Patanothai , S. Jogloy and G. Hoogenboom
  Breeding for locally adapted cultivars requires a subdivision of the target region into mega-environments. Crop models could assist in generating the required data for mega-environment determination. The objective of this study was to determine whether subdividing the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production areas in Thailand into mega-environments using a crop simulation model would be justified. The Cropping System Model (CSM) CROPGRO-Peanut was used to simulate pod yield of 17 diverse peanut lines for 130 locations covering all peanut production areas in Thailand. The data were statistically analyzed, and the genotype and genotype x environment (GGE) biplot method was used to subdivide the peanut production areas into subregions. The results reveal that the genotype x location interaction accounted for only a small proportion of total yield variation for all years. The analyses of yearly data by the GGE biplot shows inconsistent results across years for location grouping as well as for the winning genotypes of the individual location-groups. The GGE biplot analysis of the mean data over 30 yr also indicates a similarity in genotype discrimination for all the locations. The results from this study show that the subdivision of peanut production areas into mega-environments is not justified for Thailand. Therefore, for peanut breeding, Thailand should be considered as one mega-environment.
  B. Suriharn , A. Patanothai , K. Pannangpetch , S. Jogloy and G. Hoogenboom
  Multienvironment trials of crop breeding lines consume many resources. Crop models have a potential to assist in this process. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential of the CSM-CROPGRO-Peanut model in assisting with yield performance and stability evaluation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) breeding lines. Seventeen peanut lines were tested in 11 environments in Thailand during both the rainy and the dry seasons of 2002 to 2004. Yields of these lines were also simulated with the CSM-CROPGRO-Peanut model for the same 11 test sites. The cultivar coefficients of the peanut lines used for model simulation were derived from a separate experiment conducted in two seasons and were evaluated against an independent data set from another experiment. Yield performance and stability of the peanut lines were evaluated on the basis of observed and simulated data using the genotype and genotype x environment interaction biplot method. The results showed that the model predicted the relative performances and yield stability for pod yield of the test peanut lines for the 11 actual test sites reasonably well. Out of the nine highest yielding lines, that is, the upper 52%, identified by observed data, six were identified by model simulation. Similarly, out of the nine stable lines identified by observed data, six were common with those identified by simulated data. We conclude that the CSM-CROPGRO-Peanut model could be used in assisting yield performance and stability evaluation of peanut breeding lines.
  P. Songsri , S. Jogloy , T. Kesmala , N. Vorasoot , C. Akkasaeng , A. Patanothai and C. C. Holbrook
  Inheritance of traits is important for developing effective breeding schemes for improving desired traits. The aims of this study were to estimate the heritabilities (h2) of drought resistance traits and the genotypic (rG) and phenotypic (rP) correlations between drought resistance traits and agronomic traits, and to examine the relationships between drought resistance traits under stressed and nonstressed conditions. The 140 lines in the F4:7 and F4:8 generations from four peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) crosses were tested under field capacity (FC) and two-thirds available soil water (2/3 AW) in two field experiments. Data were recorded for specific leaf area (SLA), SPAD chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR), and biomass, pod yield, harvest index, number of mature pods per plant, seed per pod, and seed size. The h2 for biomass, pod yield, DTI (drought tolerance index) (pod yield), DTI (biomass), HI, SLA, and SCMR were high for all tested crosses (0.54–0.98). The rG (–0.61 and –0.66) and rP (–0.61 and –0.66) between SLA and SCMR were strong and negative under 2/3 AW and FC. Under 2/3 AW conditions, SCMR was positively correlated with pod yield and seed size. Compared to SLA, SCMR had higher rG and rP with pod yield, biomass, and other agronomics traits. Significant correlations between FC and 2/3 AW conditions were found for pod yield, biomass, SCMR, and SLA, indicating that these traits could be selected under FC or 2/3 AW conditions. SPAD chlorophyll meter reading, which is easy to measure, is potentially useful as a selection trait for drought resistance because of high h2 and positive correlation with pod yield and agronomic traits.
  A. Poledate , S. Laohasiriwong , P. Jaisil , N. Vorasoot , S. Jogloy , T. Kesmala and A. Patanothai
  The objective of this study was to determine relative importance of gene effects for PBNV incidence and PBNV severity evaluated at 30, 40, 50 and 60 days after planting. Eight generations of three crosses involved three parental lines were evaluated for disease incidence (percentage of infected plants) and disease severity under natural occurrence of PBNV infection in a randomized complete block design with six replications. Evaluations were carried out at 30, 40, 50 and 60 Days After Planting (DAP). The analysis followed Hayman’s model and Gamble’s notations were used to describe parameters of gene effects. Joint scaling test was used to determine adequacy of the model. Additive gene effect was the most important contribution to genetic variation in generation means for both disease incidence and disease severity in the cross ICGV 86388 x IC 10. Selection for lower disease incidence and disease severity in this cross is promising. Additive gene effect and additive x additive epistatic gene effect were also important but in lower magnitude in the cross ICGV 86388 x KK 60-1 for disease incidence at 60 DAP. The presence of significant dominance gene effect in this cross for disease incidence might hinder the progress from selection. The consistent and significant additive gene effect for disease severity might provide a better selection strategy. Additive gene effect was significant for disease incidence only in the cross IC 10 x KK 60-1 at 60 DAP. Additive x dominance epistatic gene effect was also significant at 40 DAP, but no genetic parameter was significant for disease severity. This cross is considered less promising.
  V. Pensuk , S. Jogloy and A. Patanothai
  The difference in PBND incidence in the rainy and dry seasons in Thailand has led to a hypothesis that temperature and relative humidity might be the causal factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature and relative humidity on the effectiveness of mechanical inoculation of PBNV on peanut. Two experiments were conducted in the rainy and dry seasons during 2004 to 2005, using the susceptible peanut genotype Tainan 9. The first experiment evaluated the effect of low temperature on the effectiveness of PBNV transmission by mechanical inoculation. The second experiment compared two temperature and relative humidity conditions in the rainy season and in the dry season. The results showed that exposing the PBNV-inoculated plants to low temperature (25°C, 90% RH) during a 12 h light period and 20°C, 90% RH during a 12 h dark period) for all the time during the experimental period did not increase the infected plants. Two climate conditions representing the dry season (daytime, 32°C, 44% RH, night-time, 22°C, 65% RH) and the rainy season (daytime, 36°C, 46% RH, night-time, 25°C, 70% RH) in Thailand also showed no difference in the infected plants. These results indicated that low temperature or relative humidity did not affect the transmissibility of PBNV. The difference in disease incidences in the rainy and the dry seasons in Thailand could not be explained by the difference in climatic conditions but could possibly be accounted for by the difference in vector infestation.
 
 
 
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