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Articles by A. Nikkhah
Total Records ( 5 ) for A. Nikkhah
  G. R. Ghorbani , D. Kianzad , M. Alikhani and A. Nikkhah
  High Ambient Temperatures (AT) would be an additional pressure on early-lactation cows already undergoing physiological and metabolic adaptations of early-lactation. Methionine is the initiator amino acid in any polypeptide biosynthesis. The high AT can stimulate the synthesis of specific proteins by the immune system to maintain cell integrity. The high AT was hypothesized to increase maintenance methionine requirements in dairy cattle already facing large methionine demands of early-lactation. The primary objective was to determine the effects of a Rumen-Protected Met (RPM) product (SmartamineMTM) on productivity and estrous expression visibility in early-lactation dairy cattle under high AT. Ten second-calf and fifteen third- and fourth-calf Holstein cows were grouped based on parity, previous milk production records and body condition score. Cows within each group were randomly assigned to either a control (n = 13) or a RPM treatment (n = 12) at 2 week prepartum and monitored through 14 week in milk. The cows were housed in loose stalls receiving 12 g daily RPM from 2 week prepartum to 2 week postpartum and 17 g RPM from 3 week through 14 week postpartum. The control cows received the same diets but without RPM. Body condition was scored at -14, 25, 60 and 110 day of calving. The visibility of estrous expression was scored on the basis of standing and mounting activities with the scorers blind to the treatments. The average maximum daily AT was 42°C in August. Across the experimental weeks, RPM increased (p<0.01) milk contents of protein, lactose and SNF in all cows. The RPM increased (p = 0.04) milk protein yield and tended (p = 0.09) to increase milk yields of energy and fat in second-calf cows but not in older cows. In addition, feeding RPM improved (p = 0.05) visibility of estrous expression across parities. Analysing the polynomial coefficients of individual lactation curves suggested that RPM-fed cows had a more persistent milk yield than control cows (p = 0.05). Results demonstrated that RPM can benefit early-lactation dairy cattle under high ambient temperatures.
  V. Keshavarz , H. Amanlou , A. Nikkhah , M. Dehghan Banadaky , E. Mahjoubi and M. Kazemi Bonchenari
  The 18 multiparous close-up Holstein dairy cows averaging BW 791.1 (SD = 44.72) in 23 day (SD = 6) before expected calving date were assigned in a completely randomized design (n = 6) to study the effects of different levels of effective fiber on chewing activity, intake and nutrients digestibility in close-up and performance in the subsequent lactation. The effective fiber was considered as high 30.40, moderate 27.38 and low 24.61% for treatments H, M and L, respectively. All the cows were fed the same diet after parturition until 20 days in milk. Total chewing activity negatively affected by decreasing the effective fiber content in the diet. Total rumination time was 473, 443 and 408 min day-1 for treatments H, M and L, respectively (p<0.03). Pre-calving DMI was 12.07, 14.29 and 12.89 kg day-1, (p<0.0007) and post-calving DMI was 17.41, 19.03 and 18.72 for treatments H, M and L, respectively (p<0.0001). Milk yield (p<0.09) and milk protein yield (p<0.07) were tended to rise with decreasing the effective fiber but there was no effect on milk fat yield among treatments. The results showed that decreasing the effective fiber in close-up diets increased DMI in both pre and post calving. It was concluded that although the strategy of decreasing effective fiber content of the close-up diets increases DMI and improved energy balance in dairy cows, the severe decrease of effective fiber in close-up diets could negatively affect rumination time that possibly could have negative effects on cow health.
  M. Dehghan-Banadaky , A. Nikkhah , H. Amanlo , M. Danesh Mesgaran and H. Mansori
  Four rumen and duodenum cannulated, Holstein lactating cows were used in a change-over design to determine the effects of NaOH, Formaldehyde or Urea treated barley on disappearance of Dry Matter (DM), Crude Protein (CP), Amino Acids (AA), NDF, ADF, hemicelluloses and starch in rumen, Post Abomasal Tract (PAT) and total tract by mobile nylon bag technique. Experimental treatments were coarse milled barley, barley treated with 3.5% NaOH, barley treated with 0.4% formaldehyde and barley treated with 3.5% urea that all chemical treated barley milled coarse before feeding. NaOH Treatment reduced concentrations of Lysine and Cystine in the barley grain. All chemical treatments decreased rumen disappearances of barley CP but only NaOH and Formaldehyde treatments also decrease total AA and some of the AA disappearances in the rumen. All chemical treatments increased DM, OM, CP, starch, NDF, ADF and hemicellulose disappearance of barley in the PAT. But only NaOH and Formaldehyde treatments increased total AA and most of AA disappearances in the PAT. Effect of chemical treatments on increase of disappearance of starch, Met and Gly in the total tract was significant (p<0.05). Rumen disappearance of TAA was lower than CP but PAT disappearance of TAA was more than CP and finally total tract disappearance of TAA was more than CP. Individual AA in barley disappeared at different rates in the rumen and PAT. Consequently, the proportion of digesta CP and AA entering the intestine must be considered.
  F. Fatahnia , A. Nikkhah and M. J. Zamiri
  The objective of this research was to determine the effect of feeding fish oil, soybean oil, or their combination on milk fatty acid profiles, especially omega-3, omega-6 and omega-3/omega-6 ratio. Milk was collected from 20 primiparous Holstein cows that were distributed into four groups and arranged in a completely randomized design with 35 days period to determine the effect of feeding fish oil, soybean oil, or their combination on milk production and composition. Experimental diets consisted of: 1) control diet; 2) a diet with 3% (DM basis) added fat from menhaden fish oil; 3) a diet with 3% added fat from soybean oil and 4) a diet with 1.5% added fat from fish oil and 1.5% fat from soybean oil. Dry matter intake (18.47, 18.87, 18.33 and 18.63 kg day-1, for control, fish oil, soybean oil and combination diets, respectively) and milk production (30.31, 32.15, 31.19 and 31.59 kg day-1) were higher for cows that consumed 3% fish oil containing diet. Milk from cows fed control, fish oil, soybean oil and fish oil with soybean oil diets contained 3.45, 2.72, 2.96 and 2.87% fat, respectively. Concentration of total omega-3 fatty acids (0.87, 1.28, 0.96 and 1.18 g/100 g of fatty acids) in milk fat were higher for cows that consumed either fish oil-containing diet, especially the 3% fish oil diet. The n-6:n-3 ratio (4.57, 2.62, 6.17 and 4.08) in milk fat was lower for fish oil diet. These results showed that fish oil modifies fatty acids profile of milk fat and increased the proportion of beneficial fatty acids for human health.
  A. Nikkhah , D. Kianzad , A. Hajhosseini and A. Zalbeyk
  The objective was to establish prolonged effects of a rumen-protected Met (RPM) product (SmartamineMTM) on milk production and reproduction of high-producing early-lactation cows under extended very high ambient temperatures. Twenty four fresh Holstein cows (27±9 days in milk, 617 kg b.wt., 2.8 body condition score) including 12 second lactation and 12 higher lactation cows were randomly assigned to either control or RPM-supplemented total mixed rations (TMR, 520:480 g kg-1 forage:concentrate), and were fed continuously for 5 months. Cows were offered TMR 3 times daily post-milking plus a top-dress alfalfa hay. The study was conducted from May through November of 2009 in central Iranian province of Isfahan. The RPM group had consistently greater 5-month-long average DM intake (21.9 vs. 19.1 kg day-1), milk yield (42.4 vs. 37.4 kg day-1), milk fat content (33 vs. 27.5 g kg-1), fat yield (1.40 vs. 1.04 kg day-1), milk protein content (29.6 vs. 27.5 g kg-1) and protein yield (1.25 vs. 1.02 kg day-1). Mature cows tended to produce mor e milk (42.2 vs. 37.6 kg day-1) and milk fat (1.30 vs. 1.13 kg day-1) than second lactation cows. The RPM significantly improved ovary function, estrus expression visibility and body condition score (3 vs. 2.6), while shortening days open (106 vs. 143) and calving interval (387 vs. 421 d). Findings provide compelling evidence for beneficial effects of prolonged RPM provision on feed intake, milk production, and reproduction of Holstein cows under concurrent metabolic pressures of early lactation and stressful high ambient temperatures.
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