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Articles by A. Murugan
Total Records ( 6 ) for A. Murugan
  M. Santhana Ramasamy , P. Arumugam , S. Manikandan and A. Murugan
  Marine gastropod molluscs known as cone snails produce a complex array of over 50,000 peptides evolved for defense and prey capture. These venom peptides of predatory snails represent a rich combinatorial like library of evolutionary selected, neuro pharmacologically active. A major portion of the venom components are small, disulphide rich peptides that potently and specifically target and modulate components of the neuromuscular system, particularly ligand gated, voltage gated ion channels and transporters, making them a valuable source of new ligands for studying the role of these targets play in normal and disease physiology. Conotoxins are genetically encoded a propeptides which following expression and cleaved by specialized endoprotease to produce the mature venom peptide. A vast number of conuspeptides reduce neuropathic pain in animal models. Though several peptide drugs are in preclinical and clinical development for the treatment of severe pain often associated with diseases such as cancer, less than 1% of cono peptides are pharmacologically explored. This review focuses on the fundamental aspects and families of conotoxins in addition to some of the novel conopeptides acting at different types of Voltage gated and ligand gated ion channels which may lead to molecular and therapeutic targets.
  P. Vijayanand , A. Murugan , K. Saravanakumar , S. Ajmal Khan and S. Rajagopal
  Lobsters are considered as a delicacy all over the world especially in countries like Japan, USA, France, UK, Netherlands etc. The total marine fish production of India was estimated to be 2.42 mt in 1999. It was 9.3% less compared to the landings in 1998. In that lobsters contributed 2,093 t as against 2,611 t in 1998, indicating a decreasing trend. The demand for the Indian lobsters led to increased exploitation and the stocks are under tremendous fishing pressure. Any fishery requires up-to-date information on population dynamics to improve long term forecasts, to plan catches and to develop rational ways of fishing and conserving the stocks. In order to manage the fishery resources, proper assessment of fish stocks is essential. The present study was undertaken for a period of one year from January to December 2000 for assessing the lobster resources along the coastline of Kanyakumari district. In this study the spiny lobsters, Panulirus ornatus, P. homarus, P. versicolor and P. longipes, deep sea lobster Puerulus sewelli and the sand lobster Thenus orientalis were recorded. Among the 38 fishing villages surveyed, the Catch Per Unit Effort (CPUE), species diversity, richness and evenness were calculated. Results showed that in Arockiapuram it was 1.30 to 8.06, 1.172, 0.504 and 0.739, respectively. It was found to be higher than in the other stations. The lobster stocks seem to deplete in the natural habitat because of the indiscriminate exploitation of baby lobsters and berried females. Lack of knowledge about relationship between adult stock and subsequent recruitment remains an important barrier for the management of lobster fisheries along this area.
  S. Emmanuel Joshua Jebasingh and A. Murugan
  Background: Marine bacteria Bacillus megaterium associated with cone snail and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from tubeworm were cultured and the chloroform extract of the culture supernatants were screened for Central Nervous System (CNS) depressant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities. Results: The locomotor activity in rats was greatly reduced by both extracts and the activity was dose dependent. The B. megaterium strain extract showed higher depressant activity. Though the groups treated with test extracts of B. megaterium and P. aeruginosa showed increase in volume of paw edema, anti-inflammatory activity was noticed up to 30 min except in P. aeruginosa 200. B. megaterium extract at 200 mg kg-1 was potent as it showed higher activity even at 60 min than the standard drug. In analgesic activity screening, the reaction time increased with increasing extract concentration and time. Both extracts produced significant antipyretic effect in a dose dependant manner. The CNS depressant and analgesic activities were pronounced in both extracts. The chloroform extract of B. megaterium and P. aeruginosa shows significant pharmacological activities. The chloroform extract of both strains showed potent to Central Nervous System depressant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities.
  R.P. Rajesh and A. Murugan
  Background: The management of limitless varieties of cancers, genetic disorders and emerging new diseases that affect humans has become complicated due to the increasing incidence of drug-resistance. So, the search for new pharmaceuticals with novel modes of action has become imperative. In this context, the marine environment, as an exceptional reservoir of bioactive natural products with potential biomedical applications, offers great scope. Among the marine organisms, ascidians are the prolific producers of bioactive substances with wide range of biological activities. Hence, the methanol extract of the marine ascidian Eudistoma viride, collected from Tuticorin coastal waters, was investigated for pharmacological properties like central nervous system depressant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities, using adult albino rats. Results: The ascidian methanol extract exhibited dose-dependent central nervous system depressant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities. The central nervous system depressant activity at 200 mg kg-1 concentration (90.7±1.2%) was comparable to the positive control Chlorpromazine (99.4±1.1). The activity of the extract was significant when compared to negative control. The anti-inflammatory activity at 200 mg kg-1 was significant and comparable to the positive control, Diclofenac. Analgesic activity was comparable to the standard drug Pentazocine at 200 mg kg-1 dosage. The reduction in temperature was significant at 200 mg kg-1. Conclusion: The central nervous system depressant activity could be considered potent as the crude methanol extract of the ascidian showed comparable activity with the pure form of the positive standard Chlorpromazine. The study indicated that the ascidian E. viride posses potent central nervous system depressant and substantial anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities.
  R. Sankar , A. Murugan and V. Sivakumar
  Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antipyretic, analgesic and CNS stimulant activities of crude extract of marine bryozoan Zoobotryon verticillatum. Methods: The bryozoan Z. verticillatum, collected by snorkeling from Tuticorin coastal waters, was washed thoroughly with sterile seawater, rinsed with sterile distilled water, air-dried for 24 h at room temperature, macerated in a warring blender and extracted repeatedly with diethyl ether. The pooled extracts was cold steeped overnight at -18°C, filtered with Whatman No.1 filter paper and evaporated to dryness in a rotary evaporator. The extract was investigated for pharmacological properties by following standard methods using adult albino rats. Results: In the anti-inflammatory assay, extract at 100 mg kg-1 showed significant activity. The analgesic activity of the extract at 200 mg kg-1 was comparable to that of positive control (Pentazocine) and was highly significant (p<0.001) when compared to negative control. The extracts showed dose dependent and significant (p<0.01) antipyretic activity. The bryozoan extract, at 200 mg kg-1, showed Central Nervous System (CNS) stimulant activity (120.8%), comparable to that of positive control (Caffeine). The bryozoan extracts exhibited dose dependent anti-ulcer activity. Extracts showed significant (p<0.001) reduction in ulcer index, enhanced pH and serum calcium level, decreased volume of gastric juice, total acidity, free acidity and alkaline phosphatase, indicating the anti-ulcer property. Conclusion: The study indicated that the bryozoan Z. verticillatum extract possess pharmacological properties.
  K. Karunakaran , P. Raja , K. Diraviyaraj and A. Murugan
  Objective: To assess the anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antipyretic, analgesic and CNS stimulant activities of crude extract of marine fungi Aspergillus oryzae. Methods: The fungi Aspergillus oryzae was isolated from mangrove Avicennia marina rhizosphere sediment and cultured in Glucose Peptone Yeast extract broth. The culture supernatant was extracted with equal volume of ethyl acetate solvent and concentrated through evaporation. The extract was investigated for pharmacological properties by following standard methods using adult albino rats. Results: In the anti-inflammatory assay, extract 100 mg kg-1 showed significant activity. The analgesic activity of the extract at 200 mg kg-1 was equal to that of positive control (Dichlofenac sodium) and was showed highly significant (p<0.001) when compared to the negative control. The extract at 200 mg kg-1 showed dose dependent and significant (p<0.5) antipyretic activity. Test extract at 100 mg kg-1 showed substantial stimulant activity (19.5%) comparable to that of positive control (caffeine). The fungal extract at 200 mg kg-1 significantly reduced (p<0.001) the volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity, alkaline phosphatase and increase calcium level indicating the antiulcer activity against gastric pyloric ulcers. Conclusion: The study indicated that the fungi A. oryzae extract possess pharmacological properties.
 
 
 
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