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Articles by A. Muhammad
Total Records ( 4 ) for A. Muhammad
  A. Muhammad , M.I. Abdul Mutalib , T. Murugesan , Z. Man and A. Bustam
  The growing interest in exploring the physical properties of ionic liquids (ILs) could be attributed towards the design of industrial processes based on ILs (nonvolatile) to replace organic solvents (highly volatile). The densities and viscosities of imidazolium based ILs have been measured and reported by a number of researchers at ambient pressure. However, the experimental physical property data for most of the ILs at high pressure is quite scarce due to the difficulties involved in the treatment of natural gas to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) at high pressures. Therefore, there is an immense need to apply correlations and thermodynamic Equation Of State (EOS) models to predict or estimate physical properties. The main objective of this work is to investigate the application of ‘Gardas and Coutinho method’ and ‘Modified Tait equation’ to estimate the densities and viscosities of two ILs: 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate; (C6mim) (BF4) and 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate; (C6mim) (PF6) at pressures up to 100 bar and at temperatures (298.15, 308.15, 318.15) K. The results show that these methods could be applied satisfactorily for estimating the density and viscosity of ionic liquids. The densities and viscosities of both ILs increased with the increase in pressure at all the studied temperatures. However, the effect of anion appeared to be significant on both physical properties for the studied ILs and found to be in decreasing order of (PF6) >(BF4).
  A. Muhammad and A. Singh
  Replicated field trials were carried out at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Fadama Teaching and Research Farm, Sokoto, during 2004/05 and 2005/06 dry seasons, to examine the effects of training and pruning on growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum Mill.) variety Roma VFN. Treatments consisted of factorial combination of two levels of training (staked and unstaked) and three levels pruning (three-stem, two-stem and unpruned) and three levels of intra-row spacing (20, 40 and 60 cm) laid out in a split-plot design replicated three times, with training allocated to the main plots and pruning intra-row spacing to the sub-plots. Results of training and pruning are presented in this paper. Results revealed that mean fruit length and diameter in the first trial, fruit weight in both trials and the two trials combined, total fresh fruit yield in the first trial and combined and percentage marketable yield in the first trial and the combined were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the tomato plants that were staked. Results on pruning showed that mean fruit length, diameter and weight in both trials were significantly higher in three-stem and two-stem pruned plants than unpruned plants. Similarly, three-stem pruned plant produced the highest total fresh fruit yield in both trials. Significant training x pruning interactions recorded, showed that the highest percentage marketable yield was at staked and pruned (both three and two-stem) plants; while two-stem with staking or no staking produced the highest mean fruit weight.
  A. Muhammad and A. Singh
  Two field trials were conducted during 2004/05 and 2005/06 dry season under irrigation at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Fadama Teaching and Research Farm, Sokoto in order to evaluate the effects of intra-row spacing and pruning on Roma VFN cultivar of tomato. The treatments consisted of factorial combination of two training (Staked and unstaked), three intra-row spacings (20, 40 and 60 cm) and three pruning levels (three-stem, two-stem and unpruned) laid out in a split-plot design replicated three times. Training was allocated to the main plots while spacing and pruning were allocated to the sub plots. This paper presents the results on spacing and pruning effects. Results showed that mean fruit length and diameter was significantly (p<0.05) higher in 60 cm spaced plants than 20 and 40 cm and two to three stem pruned plants recorded higher fruit length and diameter. Highest total fresh fruit yield was obtained at closer (20-40 cm) intra-row spacing. Pruning reduced number of marketable fruits per plant and increased the weight of marketable fruits per plant. Mean fruit weight was higher for 40 and 60 cm inter-row spacing and three-stem pruning while total fresh fruit yield was higher in 20-40 cm intra-row spacing and three stem pruning. Therefore it can be concluded from this study that pruning of tomato could be practiced to increase the yield and quality of tomato. An intra-row spacing of 20-40 cm was appropriate for maximum fresh tomato yield and quality. Three-stem pruning coupled with closer intra-row spacing (20-40 cm) may be recommended for higher production of tomato variety (Roma VFN) in the Sudan savanna of Nigeria.
  A. Muhammad , S.M. Dangoggo , A.I. Tsafe , A.U. Itodo and F.A. Atiku
  The Pulp of Gardenia aqualla fruit was analyzed for nutritional and anti-nutritional composition. The results obtained were moisture content (80.33%), ash (5.00%), crude lipid (1.70%), crude protein (3.85%), crude fibre (trace), available carbohydrate (89.45%) and the energy value (388.50 kcal/100 g). Elemental analyses shows that Sodium is the most abundant element (203.33 mg/100 g) while manganese is the least (0.2 mg/100 g), Lead was also detected (0.37 mg/100 g). The anti-nutritional parameters analyzed include; Phytate (26.57 mg/100 g), Soluble Oxalate (1.70 mg/100 g), Saponin (1.50 mg/100 g), Nitrate (0.38 mg/100 g) while Hydrocyanic acid content are (1.14 mg/100 g). The antinutrients to nutrients ratio indicate the bioavailability of some important minerals except in the case of [Phytate][Fe] and [Phytate][Ca] in the pulp which are found to reach the critical levels and therefore are expected to hinder Iron and Calcium bioavailability in the pulp.
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