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Articles by A. Kumar
Total Records ( 19 ) for A. Kumar
  P. K. Rout , A. Kumar , A. Mandal , D. Laloe , S. K. Singh and R. Roy
  Milk protein polymorphism plays an important role in genetic diversity analysis, phylogenetic studies, establishing geographical diversity, conservation decision, and improving breeding goals. Milk protein polymorphism in Indian goat breeds has not been well studied; therefore, an investigation was carried out to analyze the genetic structure of the casein gene and milk protein diversity at six milk protein loci in nine Indian goat breeds/genetic groups from varied agro-climatic zones. Milk protein genotyping was carried out in 1098 individual milk samples by SDS-PAGE at αS1-CN (CSN1S1), β-CN (CSN2), αS2-CN (CSN1S2), κ-CN (CSN3), β-LG, and α-LA loci. Indian goats exhibited αS1-casein A allele in higher frequency in the majority of breeds except Ganjam and local goats. The αS1-casein A allele frequencies varied from 0.45 to 0.77. A total of 16 casein haplotypes were observed in seven breeds and breed specific haplotypes were observed with respect to geographic region. The average number of alleles was lowest in Ganjam (1.66 ± 0.81) and highest in Sirohi goats (2.50 ± 1.05). Expected heterozygosity at six different loci demonstrated genetic diversity and breed fragmentation. Neighbor-Joining tree was built basing on Nei's distance. There was about 16.95% variability due to differences between breeds, indicating a strong subdivision. Principal component analysis was carried out to highlight the relationship among breeds. The variability among goat breeds was contributed by αS2-CN, β-LG and αS1-CN. The Indian goats exhibited αS1-CN (CSN1S1) A allele in higher frequency in all the breeds indicating the higher casein yield in their milk.
  A. Kumar , A.K. Verma and A. Rahal
  Not available
  P.S. Bagalakote , R.S. Rathore , T.P. Ramees , H.V. Mohan , M. Sumankumar , R.K. Agarwal , A. Kumar and K. Dhama
  In modern years, Arcobacters are reflected as potential emerging food-borne zoonotic entero-pathogens. Arcobacter species displayed a wide variety of genetic diversity. The study was carried out to genotype and find molecular heterogeneity of Arcobacter spp. (Arcobacter butzleri, A. cryaerophilus and A. skirrowii), isolated from different sources from Bareilly region, Uttar Pradesh, India by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA - polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). RAPD-PCR was performed using genomic DNA of Arcobacter isolates (n = 56; 33 A. butzleri, 20 A. cryaerophilus, 3 A. skirrowii; recovered from chicken meat, pork, sheep faeces, goat faeces, poultry intestinal contents and human diarrhoeal stool samples) as template by employing two published primers. The RAPD profiling for primer 1 (HLWL85) yielded number of bands rangeing between 2-8 (500-3100 bp). Out of 56 isolates, 54 showed bands giving a typeability of 96.4%. These 54 typable strains were grouped to 35 types and giving discriminatory power of 0.9762. Primer 2 (OPA-11) yielded RAPD-PCR profiles comprising of 2-7 bands (210-2800 bp). Out of total 56 isolates, 54 were typable with a discriminatory power of 0.9336. This is the first report from India regarding RAPD profiling of Arcobacter spp. This study reveals epidemiological relationship of Arcobacter isolate from various sources and will help to design suitable prevention and control strategies for this important pathogen having public health significance.
  M. Kumar , B. Sharma , A. Kumar , H.P. Lal , V. Kumar and M.K. Tripathi
  Toxocara canis is a very important gastrointestinal nematode affecting canines with considerable public health importance. This study was conducted to find out the prevalence and corresponding haemato-biochemical changes in dogs infested with T. canis and to determine its zoonotic implication to dog owners. A total of 121 dogs were screened from October 2008 to May 2009 by direct smear and Mc-master technique, to determine correlation between overall prevalence of T. canis infestation with respect to sex, age, breed, size and season-wise infestation. Haemato-biochemical profile was performed in 24 infested dogs, randomly selected to evaluate changes in Hb, PCV, TEC, TLC, DLC count, serum protein, serum glucose and serum enzymes. The overall prevalence was found to be 28.93%. The prevalence was not influenced by sex but non-descript breeds had significantly higher rates. Pups were more infested than adults and the disease was more prevalent in winters. Dogs having active infection with T. canis infestation showed anemia, leucocytosis and significant eosinophilia (p<0.05). A significant decrease (p<0.05) was observed in serum protein and glucose whereas highly significant increase (p<0.01) was found for both serum enzymes (SGOT and SGPT). Very few dog owners (4.13%) were aware about potential public health significance of the parasite. Survey revealed that unaware owners who belonged to lower/middle/upper middle class, did not maintain hygiene and scheduled deworming and always remain at high zoonotic risk. Being zoonotic, the parasite poses a significant danger to humans mainly children who remain in their vicinity. Thus immediate action needs to be taken to control this parasite and to increase awareness among the dog-owners about the zoonoses being spread by the companion animals.
  H Li , A Mittal , D. Y Makonchuk , S Bhatnagar and A. Kumar

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal X-linked genetic disorder of skeletal muscle caused by mutation in dystrophin gene. Although the degradation of skeletal muscle extracellular matrix, inflammation and fibrosis are the common pathological features in DMD, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we have investigated the role and the mechanisms by which increased levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) protein causes myopathy in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. The levels of MMP-9 but not tissue inhibitor of MMPs were drastically increased in skeletal muscle of mdx mice. Besides skeletal muscle, infiltrating macrophages were found to contribute significantly to the elevated levels of MMP-9 in dystrophic muscle. In vivo administration of a nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitory peptide, NBD, blocked the expression of MMP-9 in dystrophic muscle of mdx mice. Deletion of Mmp9 gene in mdx mice improved skeletal muscle structure and functions and reduced muscle injury, inflammation and fiber necrosis. Inhibition of MMP-9 increased the levels of cytoskeletal protein β-dystroglycan and neural nitric oxide synthase and reduced the amounts of caveolin-3 and transforming growth factor-β in myofibers of mdx mice. Genetic ablation of MMP-9 significantly augmented the skeletal muscle regeneration in mdx mice. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of MMP-9 activity also ameliorated skeletal muscle pathogenesis and enhanced myofiber regeneration in mdx mice. Collectively, our study suggests that the increased production of MMP-9 exacerbates dystrophinopathy and MMP-9 represents as one of the most promising therapeutic targets for the prevention of disease progression in DMD.

  B. Sundu , A. Kumar and J. Dingle
  The effect of proportion of crumbled copra meal and enzyme inclusion on bird performance and gastro-intestinal response was studied. Three diets with two enzyme treatments were each fed to four replicates of 10 broilers from 1 to 42 days of age. The diets contained 300 g kg-1 crumbled copra meal and were fed either as a finely ground or crumbled or a mixture of 50/50 finely ground and crumbled copra meal, each with or without an enzyme supplement (Hemicell plus Allzyme SSF). Feeding the crumbled copra meal diet, which had the largest crumble sizes, increased body weight, live weight gain, feed intake and water consumption of birds. The gizzard size of birds fed crumbled copra meal in their diets was significantly larger and heavier than for birds fed the fine mash copra meal diet. The inclusion of enzyme significantly increased body weight and live weight gain of birds fed until 6 weeks of age. The duodenum, ileum and overall size of intestines of birds fed the supplemented copra meal diet were larger and heavier than those of birds fed the diet without enzyme supplementation. Including crumbled copra meal in the diet had a beneficial effect in increasing the productivity of birds and supplementation of a copra meal based diet with enzymes was additionally beneficial.
  Mahendra Persaud , A. Kumar , R.B.S. Sengar , Abhinav Sao , R.K. Dantre and M.N. Shrivastava
  The genetic analysis of blast (Pyricularia grisea Sacc.) resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) was conducted in Chhattisgarh, India. The inheritance studies revealed that, resistant parents RR 166-645 and Bala possessed a single dominant gene, which is effective against one or more races of blast. The resistant line RR 345-2 and moderately resistant lines IAC 25 and IR 42221-2-3-2 possesses two independent dominant genes, each gene providing resistance against a single but different race. Allelic tests showed that, the genes conferring resistance to blast present in RR 166-645 and RR 345-2 are non-allelic. Similarly, the resistance conferring genes in WAB 56-50 and B 61444-F-MR-6-0-0 are also non-allelic.
  A. Kumar , S.V. Singh , A.K. Srivastava , N.K. Gangwar , P.K. Singh , S. Gupta , K.K. Chaubey , R. Tiwari , S. Chakraborty and K. Dhama
  Johne’s Disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, is endemic in domestic animals and adversely affects dairy industry worldwide. In the present study, efficacies of ‘Indigenous’and commercial (Gudair, Spain) vaccines were evaluated for control of JD in experimentally challenged goats. Goats were grouped into Sham-immunized, Indigenous and Gudair vaccine groups. Vaccinated kids were challenged at 50 and 270 Days Post Vaccination (DPV), with 3×109 and 5×109 ‘Indian Bison Type strain ‘S 5’, respectively and sacrificed at 150 and 450 DPV after 1st and 2nd challenge, respectively. Vaccines were evaluated for improvements in physical condition (diarrhea, weakness, body coat color), clinical symptoms (shedding of bacilli, mortality, morbidity), immune responses (cell-mediated and humoral), pathology (gross and microscopic lesions) and production status (body weights, growth rates). Vaccinated goats gained higher body weights vis a vis sham-immunized. Mortality was higher in sham-immunized. Cell Mediated Immunity (CMI) response increased at 30 DPV and showed down regulation from 90 DPV onwards in vaccinated goats. Significant increase in humoral immune response was observed in vaccinated goats at 180 DPV and maintained till 450 DPV. Microscopical examination at 180 DPV showed reduced shedding in vaccinated groups, At 200 DPV, group 1 goats showed thickening of small intestine with corrugations specifically at ileocaecal junction, catarrhal enteritis with infiltration of mononuclear cells and epitheloid cells. In vaccinated groups, there were focal thickening of intestines at 450 DPV with lesions of chronic catarrhal enteritis and presence of lymphocyte, plasma cells and macrophages cells with a few epitheloid cells. Monitoring of MAP DNA in the blood of experimental goats of all the groups was done by testing of blood samples by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and the vaccinated groups of goats revealed MAP bacilli free status upto 300 DPV. Both the vaccines provided protection after challenge I, but since indigenous vaccine also protected goats after challenge II, was therefore superior. In conclusion, the indigenous vaccine must be exploited for its full potential for effective prevention and control of this economically important disease having public health concerns.
  R. A. Lal , S. Choudhury , A. Ahmed , M. Chakraborty , R. Borthakur and A. Kumar
  The mononuclear nickel(II) complex [Ni(H2slox)(H2O)3] (1) and polymeric dinuclear complexes [Ni2(slox)(A4)] {A = H2O (2), py (3), 2-pic (4), 3-pic (5) and 4-pic (6)} and the discrete binuclear complexes [Ni2(slox)(NN)3] {NN = bpy (7) and phen (8)} have been synthesized from disalicylaldehyde oxaloyldihydrazone (H4slox) in methanol. All of the complexes are nonelectrolytes. Complexes 1, 7, and 8 are paramagnetic while binuclear 2-6 possess anomalously low μeff value, indicating considerable metal-metal interaction. Discrete binuclear 7 and 8 have no interaction between the two nickel(II) ions. The anomalously low magnetic moment values in 2-6 are explained as metal-metal interaction via phenoxide bridge. Such metal-metal interactions are less in 7 and 8 due to coordination of bipyridine and phenanthroline molecules which do not allow phenoxide bridging. The dihydrazone coordinates to the metal center as a dibasic tridentate ligand in keto-enol form in staggered configuration in 1, while in the remaining complexes the dihydrazone is tetrabasic hexadentate in enol form in anticis configuration. The metal center has a tetragonally distorted octahedral stereochemistry.
  R. A. Lal , M. Chakraborty , O. B. Chanua , S. Choudhury , R. Borthakur , S. Copperfield and A. Kumar
  Monometallic zinc(II) and nickel(II) complexes, [Zn(H2nsh)(H2O)] (1) and [Ni(H2nsh)(H2O)2] (2), have been synthesized in methanol by template method from bis(2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde)succinoyldihydrazone (H4nsh). Reaction of monometallic complexes with alternate metal(II) acetates as a transmetallator in 1 : 3 molar ratio resulted in the formation of heterobimetallic complexes [NiZn(nsh)(A)3] and [ZnNi(nsh)(A')2] (A = H2O (3), py (4), 2-pic (5), 3-pic (6), 4-pic (7)), (A' = H2O (8), py (9), 2-pic (10), 3-pic (11), and 4-pic (12)). The complexes have been characterized by elemental analyzes, mass spectra, molar conductance, magnetic moments, electronic, EPR, and IR spectroscopies. All of the complexes are non-electrolytes. Monometallic zinc(II) is diamagnetic while monometallic nickel(II) complex and all heterobimetallic complexes are paramagnetic. The metal centers in heterobimetallic complexes are tethered by dihydrazone and naphthoxo bridging. Zinc(II) is square pyramidal; nickel(II) is six-coordinate distorted octahedral except [ZnNi(nsh)(A)2], in which nickel(II) has square-pyramidal geometry. The displacement of metal center in monometallic complexes by metal ion has been observed in the resulting heterobimetallic complexes.
  A. Kumar , J. Prakash and A. M. Biradar
  The decrease in Goldstone mode relaxation frequency with applied dc electric field in a deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal (DHFLC) is observed at room temperature. This decrement in relaxation frequency is observed at very low dc electric fields (below the threshold voltage, i.e. around 2 V). This behaviour is compared with that of conventional ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs) where the relaxation frequency increases with the applied dc electric field. It is observed that a low dc electric field is insufficient to unwind the helix completely due to the higher rotational viscosity of the DHFLC material. Moreover, the DHFLC molecules take more time in the winding (Smectic C-Smectic C*) process, compared to the FLC molecules, which take comparatively less helix winding time because of their low viscosity. The decrease in relaxation frequency in DHFLCs with bias has been attributed to the critical balancing amongst the electric torque, elastic constraints and rotational viscosity in a certain regime of the electric field not exceeding the threshold field.
  K. Dhama , S. Rajagunalan , S. Chakraborty , A.K. Verma , A. Kumar , R. Tiwari and S. Kapoor
  The term food borne diseases or food-borne illnesses or more commonly food poisoning are used to denote gastrointestinal complications that occur following recent consumption of a particular food or drink. Millions of people suffer worldwide every year and the situation is quiet grave in developing nations creating social and economic strain. The food borne pathogens include various bacteria viz., Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus, Arcobacter, Clostridium perfringens, Cl. botulinum and Bacillus cereus and helminths viz., Taenia. They also include protozoa viz., Trichinella, Sarcocystis, Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. The zoonotic potential and the ability to elaborate toxins by many of the microbes causing fatal intoxication are sufficient to understand the seriousness of the situation. The viral agents being host specific their transmission to humans through food of animal origin is not yet confirmed although these animal viruses are similar to that of viruses infecting human. Food-borne bacteria; protozoa and helminthes have complex distribution pattern in the environment and inside the host system. This along with complexity of the maintenance chain and life cycle (of parasites) has made it difficult for epidemiologist and diagnostician to undertake any immediate safety measures against them. Serological and molecular diagnostic tests viz. ELISA, Latex agglutination test, Lateral flow assays, Immunomagnetic separation assays, molecular assays viz. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, immuno-PCR, Realtime PCR, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, DNA microarrays and probes are widely used. Along with these LAMP assays, Capillary Electrophoresis-Single Strand Confirmation polymorphism (CE-SSCP); Flow cytometry, FISH, Biosensors, Direct epifluorescent filter technique, nanotechnology based methods and sophisticated tools (ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and chlonangio-pancreatography) have aided in the diagnosis greatly. Most of the food-borne illnesses are self-limiting but in many instances antibiotics are recommended. With the increased drug resistance however use of chicken immunoglobulin, bacteriophage therapy, probiotics and herbs are gaining much importance these days. Adoption of proper prevention and control measures (including cooking procedures; hygiene, strict adherence to HACCP principles, public awareness and disease surveillance and monitoring) are the need of hour. All these have been discussed vividly in this review to help epidemiologists, diagnosticians, clinicians and above all common people so as to enable them avoid negligence regarding such serious issue.
  A. Kumar , N. Padmanabhan and M.R.V. Krishnan
  The Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae) is a traditional medicine plant for the treatment of hypoglycemic, antibacterial, anti-HIV and antidiarrheal activities. The work reached the acute toxicity of Syzygium cumini and its action on the Central Nervous System (CNS) because no data in the literature have been found of pharmacological activity of this plant in the CNS. The seed was extracted with ethyl acetate and methanol and investigated for its Central Nervous System activity (CNS) of Albino mice in rota rod and actophotometer at the dose level of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. Both the extract exhibited significantly CNS activity. This study established CNS activity in Syzygium cumini seed.
  A. Kumar , R. Ilavarasan , T. Jayachandran , M. Decaraman , P. Aravindhan , N. Padmanabhan and M.R.V. Krishnan
  The developing countries mostly rely on traditional medicines. This traditional medicine involves the use of different plant extracts or the bioactive constituents. This type of study provides the health application at affordable cost. This study such as ethnomedicine keenly represents one of the best avenues in searching new economic plants for medicine. In keeping this view in mind the present investigation is carried out in Syzygium cumini seed of Kattuppalayam, Erode District, Tamil Nadu, South India. The results suggest that the phytochemical properties of the seed for curing various ailments.
  A. Kumar , A. Gupta , S.S. Atwal , V.K. Maheshwari and C.B. Singh
  Karnal bunt disease of wheat caused by Tilletia indica is a designated disease and a limiting factor in wheat export because most countries regulate the Karnal Bunt (KB) pathogen as a quarantine pest. KB pathogen is seed, soil and air borne. The seed must be threshed and examined for KB infection. Therefore, the post harvest management of KB in wheat seed production through mechanical processing is very important. Pre-cleaner and screen grader removed 83.1 and 61.4% of total KB infected seed present in the seed lot and reduced KB infection from 1.42 to 0.24% and 4.27 to 1.65% in 2012-13 and 2013-14, respectively but it is much higher than the permissible limit of 0.05%. Hence, a total of 18 combinations, comprising of three deck slopes (S1-20, S2-2.50, S3-30), three feedings (F1- 5 kg, F2- 10 kg, F3- 15 kg min-1) and two output settings (O1- 45 cm deck width, O2- 43 cm deck width) of specific gravity separator were studied with an objective of getting maximum Karnal bunt free seed per unit of time. Minimum KB infection in final product (0.04 and 0.28%), maximum final output (12.58 and 12.78 kg min-1) and KB free seed recovery per minute (12.58 and 12.75 kg) with 84.1 and 86.4% recovery efficiency has been obtained by the treatment S1F3O1 (slope of deck 20, feeding 15 kg min-1, output deck width 45 cm) in 2012-13 and 2013-14, respectively. Mechanical processing reduced KB infection by more than 93%, depending on the intensity of infection and increased seed quality i.e., seed germination improved by 7.71% and physical purity by 2.41%.
  A. Soni , A. Kumar , V. Nath and A. Niveden
  : Genetic diversity of the Monoceious thalloid liverwort Plagiochasma appendiculatum was investigated by Rapid Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The species is explained and demonstrated with its genetic diversity on the basis of morphological variations. Samples were collected from different parts of India growing on different habitat at variable altitude. After the study of its morphology, it has been observed that the population of this taxon shows significant variation in plant size, shape, colour, ventral scales, appendages of scales, rhizoids, position of male and female receptacles etc. Based on such morphological variations, we have used the RAPD marker to estimate the genetic diversity within and between the populations. Approximately 75% of the variations have been observed within and between genotypes of P. appendiculatum as revealed with both phenotypic and genotypic data. The RAPD markers are being used increasingly to analyze the phylogenetic relationship among the liverworts to give the exact framework of taxonomic identification of naturally occurring liverwort P. appendiculatum.
  N. Vijay , A. Kumar and A. Bhoite
  This research attempts to investigate the influence of N, P and K on chlorophyll, carbohydrate, proteins and sapogenin contents of Asparagus racemosus (Willd.). The treatment consisted different concentrations of nitrogen (N 20, N 40, N 80 and N 160 mg kg-1), phosphorus (P 20, P 40, P 80 and P 160 mg kg-1) and potassium (K 40, K 80 and K 160 mg kg-1) in the form of Urea (46%, H2NCONH2), superphosphate (16%, P2O5) and muriate of potash (60% K2O), respectively. A significant increase in the chlorophyll content was recorded with all the applications of N, P and K. Root protein and carbohydrate contents were found linearly increase with K treatment while a slight decline was found with the higher dosage of N. Root sapogenin content was 1.66, 1.87 and 1.75 folds higher than the control with N, P and K, respectively. Application of Phosphorus was found to be best for growth and biochemical contents of root tuber.
  M. W Brandt , A Brav , J. R Graham and A. Kumar

Campbell, Lettau, Malkiel, and Xu (2001) document a positive trend in idiosyncratic volatility during the 1962–1997 period. We show that by 2003 volatility falls back to pre-1990s levels. Furthermore, we show that the increase and subsequent reversal is concentrated among firms with low stock prices and high retail ownership. This evidence suggests that the increase in idiosyncratic volatility through the 1990s was not a time trend but, rather, an episodic phenomenon, at least partially associated with retail investors. Results from cross-sectional regressions, conditional trend estimation, stock-split events, and "attention-grabbing" events are consistent with a retail trading effect.

  Dileep K. Panda , R. Singh , D. K. Kundu , H. Chakraborty and A. Kumar
  Assessment of soil organic C (SOC) stocks is important for monitoring the effect of land use change in the C cycle and for formulation of C sequestration strategies in the context of global climate change. Discrepancies among the recent global SOC estimates by different researchers underscore the importance of precise estimation of the uncertainty associated with the SOC stocks. A method was recently proposed to estimate the SOC storage uncertainty using the Taylor series of approximations. Here we show that the accuracy of SOC storage uncertainty can be improved by incorporating the covariance among the input variables. Measurement of input variables from independent samples or use of an incomplete model leads to either over- or underestimation of the SOC storage uncertainty. The application of the method to an experimental data set indicated that ignoring covariance would lead to a substantial overestimate of the uncertainty.
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