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Articles by A. Khavanin
Total Records ( 14 ) for A. Khavanin
  S.B. Mortazavi , A. Safari , A. Khavanin , A. Kazemnejad , S.M. Moazzeni and Abbas Rezaee
  Increasing applications of microwave radiation are of great concern with regard to public health. Several studies have been conducted detect effects of microwave exposure genetic material leading to negative or questionable results. The Micronucleus (MN) assay which is proved to be a useful method for detection of radiation exposure- induced cytogenetic damage was used in present study to investigate the genotoxic effect of microwave and toluene alone and in combination in balb/c lymphocytes. The electromagnetic field with two frequencies (980, 950 MHz, 200 KHz Mod), 5 w and 500 ppm Toluene applied for two weeks. Microwave irradiation had no significant effect on frequency of micronucleus induced, but exposure of animals to toluene alone and in combination with microwave have significantly increased the induced micronucleus (p <0.05). Indeed combination exposure of microwave and toluene showed higher rate of micronucleus in comparison with toluene alone. This study indicated that microwave radiation can not induce any significant cytogenetic effects but, in combination with toluene could show synergistic effect.
  M. Sadeghi , A. Mesdaghinia , A. Badkoubi , R. Nabizadeh and A. Khavanin
  The effectiveness of ozone treatment for improving the biodegradability of recalcitrant pollutants has been proved by investigating the ozonation reaction of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) a bioresistant gasoline oxygenate. Laboratory scale experiments have been carried out, at room temperature, by bubbling, for 120 min, ozonated air (3.4 ppm min¯1) into 3 liter of an alkaline (pH=11.5) aqueous solution (100 mg L¯1) of MTBE. The experimental results indicated that during the ozonation, complete MTBE degradation occurs in 100 min and after this time, ozone consumption goes on very slowly. At the end of the ozonation, after 100 min, the initial value of COD (256 mg O2 1) is 98 and correspond to a relative removal of about 62%.As for MTBE solution biodegradability expressed as (BOD5)/(COD) ratio, during the first 90 min its value regularly increases from lowest (0.01) up to a maximum of 0.68 that corresponds to an ozone consumption of 1.25 mg per each mg of COD initially present in the solution.The experimental results for determining the rate of MTBE removal due to stripping showed that about 14% of MTBE strips out after an hour of sparging with oxygen gas. The fraction of MTBE oxidized and/or striped increases to about 28% (in pH=7) and 70% (in pH=11.5) with ozonation over the same time period.
  S.B. Mortazavi , A. Nikpey , A. Rezaee , H. Asilian , A. Khavanin and H. Kazemian
  Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is added to reformulated gasoline to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act directives. Widespread use of MTBE in gasoline has resulted in groundwater contamination. Because of its undesirable effects on drinking water and ecologically harmful effects, MTBE removal has become a public health and environmental concern. In this study, we have isolated a mixed bacterial culture which is capable of degrading the MTBE as a sole carbon and energy source. This consortium was developed from mixed urban and petrochemical activated sludge after 4 month's enrichment. Enrichment was conducted in batch reactor, fitted with a screw cap and butyl rubber septum. MTBE concentration was measured in head space by gas chromatography. Degradation was determined by MTBE removal. MTBE biodegradation was depended to Dissolved Oxygen (DO) concentration and not affected by the changes in concentration of trace element solution or other stimulator Substances. Degradation rates were nearly 1.478 mg MTBE h¯11 (wet biomass) and didn’t change with MTBE concentration (up 500 mg L¯1).
  A. Rezaee , M. Ansari , A. Khavanin , A. Sabzali and M.M. Aryan
  The design and operation of wastewater treatment systems for hospital is a challenge for wastewater engineers. In this study, a pilot-scale system integrated anaerobic-aerobic fixed film reactor for hospital wastewater treatment was constructed and its performance was evaluated. The aim of the study was the elimination of organic compounds and a significant reduction of bacteria. The system had been operated for 90 days. The results show that the system efficiently removed 95.1% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) from a hospital wastewater with the influent COD of 700 mg L¯1, leaving 34 mg L¯1 COD in the effluent. The significant removal of pathogenic bacterial has been do after operating of the system. The advantages of the treatment system studied for small wastewater flows include: (I) simple operation and maintenance; (II) efficient removal of COD and bacteria; and (III) low-energy consumption.
  A. Rezaee , A. Khavanin and M. Ansari
  Work camps, have to be established quickly, are a transient nature and located in environmentally sensitive areas. Wastewater treatment systems located in the work camps often perform poorly. In response to these deficiencies and the need to provide for reliable, cost effective, high efficiency wastewater treatment, the research team designed a sequence batch reactor (SBR)/ sand filter system that is simple, compact, robust, easy to operate and produces a high quality effluent. The SBR/sand filter system is operated with varying organic loading rates and process performance is assessed by monitoring COD, BOD5, pH, volatile suspended solids, suspended solids and nitrate during the cycle operation. The process described, is a flexible, biologic, suspended growth system that can be operated in the conventional activated sludge or extended aeration mode.
  J.M. Kanaani , S.B. Mortazavi , A. Khavanin , R. Mirzai , Y. Rasulzadeh and M. Mansurizadeh
  The objective of this study is to determine the foot anthropometric data's for some Iranian men to apply in medicine and design of foot equipments. In this study, the foot images of 160 Iranian men, with ages ranging from 18 to 25 years old were taken by a digital camera and the values of 8 dimensions of the foot were extracted with software for each individual. Finally the results were analyzed by SPSS. The average values, standard deviation, the smallest and largest values, the 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles of the 8 dimensions were calculated. For example Mean±SD for length, width and Biomlleolar Breadth of the foot were obtained 264.66±13.10, 106.84±5.64 and 74.47±4.11 mL. The correlation coefficients were found between different dimensions. It was determined that there is significant correlation between 85% of foot dimensions (p<0.05). In this study, for the first time the values of 8 important foot dimensions were obtained in Iran that will serve as a basis for design and sizing of shoes and other foot equipments. It is recommended that similar studies to be done with considering race, life style and job for the purpose of medical goals and ergonomic designs.
  H. Asilian Mahabady , M. Omidvar , A. Rezaee , A. Khavanin and S. B. Mortazavi
  A Microsoft Windows based ventilation software package is developed to reduce time-consuming and boring procedure of exhaust ventilation system design. This program Assure accurate and reliable air pollution control related calculations. Herein, package is tentatively named Exhaust Ventilation Design Software which is developed in VB6 programming environment. Most important features of Exhaust Ventilation Design Software that are ignored in formerly developed packages are Collector design and fan dimension data calculations. Automatic system balance is another feature of this package. Exhaust Ventilation Design Software algorithm for design is based on two methods: Balance by design (Static pressure balance) and design by Blast gate. The most important section of software is a spreadsheet that is designed based on American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists calculation sheets. Exhaust Ventilation Design Software is developed so that engineers familiar with American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists datasheet can easily employ it for ventilation systems design. Other sections include Collector design section (settling chamber, cyclone, and packed tower), fan geometry and dimension data section, a unit converter section (that helps engineers to deal with units), a hood design section and a Persian HTML help. Psychometric correction is also considered in Exhaust Ventilation Design Software. In Exhaust Ventilation Design Software design process, efforts are focused on improving GUI (graphical user interface) and use of programming standards in software design. Reliability of software has been evaluated and results show acceptable accuracy.
  H. Asilian Mahabady , S. Jafari , H. Kazemian and A. Khavanin
  Gold nanoparticle is the active catalyst for CO oxidation at low temperature. This feature of gold base catalysts is suitable to overcome the problem of cold-start problem of automobile exhaust TWC converters. In this study gold nanoparticle were deposited on modified NH4-Y type zeolite. The activity of synthesized catalyst was measured in a fixed-bed quartz-tubular reactor (7mm i.d.) under atmospheric pressure. In order to investigate the catalytic activities toward CO oxidation reaction, 31mL/min of air and 0.155mL/min of carbon monoxide were mixed and then passed through the reactor. It was found that activity of Au/Y catalyst was 100% at 20°C. The thermal stability of Au/Y catalyst was measured at 400°C for 4h. The activity of the catalyst was decreased to 65% at 20°C after thermal stability test. Results of Energy Dispersive Analysis by X-rays before and after thermal stability have showed that Au content of these samples were 3.89% and 1.76, respectively. It was found that the amount of Au content decreased after thermal stability process. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectra showed no changes in framework structure of zeolite during thermal stabilization process of the catalyst.
  H. Asilian , M. Nasseri Nejad , S. B. Mortazavi , M. J. Jafari , A. Khavanin and A. R. Dehdashti
  Dust consists of tiny solid particles carried by air currents. These particles are formed by many different processes. One of these processes is polymerization of inert plastic such as Polyvinyl Chloride production plant. According to the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series requirements, section 4.4.6, occupational health and safety risks must be defined and controlled where needed. This field study was conducted to evaluate the occupational exposure of packaging operators to airborne polyvinyl chloride dust in order to health risk assessment and recommend feasible controlling methods. The mass concentration of polyvinyl chloride particulate was measured in two fractions according to the particle size that expressed as total and respirable particulates. The Air Sampling Methods, Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances 14/3, of Health and Safety Executive were used as a standard sampling protocol. The average mass concentrations for respirable and total particulates were measured 3.54±0.3 mg/m3and 11.89±0.8 mg/m3respectively. Also health risks of studied condition were estimated as significant level, category one, therefore the risk must be reduced below the standard level. According to the work requirements to reduce the emission rate and mitigate the health risk exposure, a local exhaust ventilation system design was recommended for bag-filters of hopper tank.
  A. Rezaee , M. T. Ghaneian , A. Khavanin , S. J. Hashemian , Gh. Moussavi , Gh. Ghanizadeh and E. Hajizadeh
  In textile industry, advanced oxidation processes are used for degrading and removing color from dye baths which allow wastewater reuse. In this study, photochemical oxidation processes (UV-A/K2S2O8, UV-C/K2S2O8) and chemical oxidation process (dark/K2S2O8), were investigated in a laboratory scale photoreactor for decolorization of the Reactive blue 19 (RB19) dye from synthetic textile wastewater. The effects of operating parameters such as potassium persulphate dosage, pH, reaction time and UV source, on decolorization have been evaluated. The results of direct chemical oxidation showed that 50% of the dye was been removed using K2S2O8 in dark condition after 5h reaction time and photochemical oxidation showed that UV-C irradiation is more effective than UV-A for RB19 dye removal. The RB19 solution was completely decolorized under optimal potassium persulphate dosage of 5mmol/L and low-pressure mercury UV-C lamps (15w) in less than 30min. UV/K2S2O8 experiments showed higher color removal performance under acidic conditions (pH=3), and in this condition with 5mmol/L of potassium persulphate, 78.5% COD has been removed after 3h irradiation time. The decolorization rate fitted to pseudo-first order kinetics with respect of dye concentration. The reaction rate constants for photochemical degradation of RB19 were 0.014 and 0.237 for UV-A/K2S2O8 and UV-C/K2S2O8 processes respectively.
  A. Rezaee , H. Godini , S. Dehestani and A. Khavanin
 

In this study impregnated almond shell activated carbon by Zn° and ZnSO4 were used as adsorbent with a particle size of 10-20 mesh. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of impregnated activated carbon in nitrate removal. The modified activated carbon had 1mm effective size, with a uniformity coefficient of 1.18. Potassium nitrate solution was used in batch adsorption experiments for nitrate removal from water. The effects of nitrate concentration, activated carbon dosage and time of contact were studied. Experimental data showed that modified activated carbon by Zn° and ZnSO4 was more effective than virgin almond activated carbon for nitrate removal. The maximum nitrate removal was 64%-80% and 5%-42% for modified activated carbon and virgin activated carbon, respectively. While virgin activated carbon used, nitrate-N decreased from 20 to 15mg/L in 30min reaction. The final nitrate concentration was not in the standard range of WHO recommendations for water quality; while impregnated activated carbons were used, nitrate drcreased to <10mg/L. Maximum removal was over 16-17mg nitrate-N per 1g activated carbon for impregnated activated carbon. The experiments were conducted at pH=6.2, 20°C and initial concentrations of 20mg/L nitrate-N. Increase in modified activated carbon dosage increased the nitrate removal efficiency. The equilibrium time was found to be 45min for modified activated carbon.

  A. Dehdashti , A. Khavanin , A. Rezaee , H. Assilian and M. Motalebi
  The purpose of this laboratory scale experimental research was to investigate the application of integrated microwave irradiation and granular activated carbon adsorption for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from emissions released from industrial processes and considered major pollutants of the environment. A stream containing 300 ppm toluene was supplied and passed through the granular activated carbon (GAC). The saturated adsorbent was placed in a quartz glass reactor and treated by microwave (MW) irradiation at heating frequency of 2450 MHz at different power levels. Adsorption capacity was evaluated through breakthrough curves and the residue analyzed by gas chromatography. Breakthrough results showed that the high relative humidity of the inlet gaseous stream could lead to decreased GAC adsorption capacity. We found that GAC could absorb microwave irradiation and dissipate heating energy increasing its temperature up to 600°C in a short time mainly depending on the microwave power level. Our experimental results indicated that most of the toluene vapor passed over GAC was decomposed under 900 watt microwave irradiation after around 10 minutes. The addition of water vapor in the inlet stream slightly decreased pollutant removal rate over the GAC while the overall oxidation removal remain the same compared to stream with low content of water vapor. Adsorption isotherms showed that GAC surface area and porosity values increased slightly under microwave irradiation. We concluded that simultaneous application of GAC and microwave irradiation may be an effective approach for removing VOCs from gaseous stream.
  S.B. Mortazavi , A. Khavanin , G. Moussavi and A. Azhdarpoor
  The objective of this study was to investigate the removal of an anionic surfactant from wastewater in ICEAS. The surfactant considered here was anionic SDS being widely used in the household and industrial detergents. Basic wastewater COD was 260 mg L-1 and SDS surfactant added in range 20 to 400 mg L -1. The effect of the inlet SDS concentration and reaction time on COD and SDS removal was investigated. The results from this study indicated that the aeration time of 2 h was sufficient for removal of SDS ranged 20 to 400 mg L-1. Obtained data showed low effluent SDS concentrations of 0.3 to 5 mg L-1 and removal of SDS was more than 98%. These results revealed that biological treatment using ICEAS process is capable to treating wastewaters containing high concentration of SDS surfactant.
  A. Rezaee , S. Ahmadizad , A. Khavanin , M. Ansari and M. Farokhi
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