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Articles by A. Khanafari
Total Records ( 5 ) for A. Khanafari
  A. Khanafari , R. Marandi and Sh. Sanatei
  Shrimp waste is the most important chitin source for commercial use. In this study chitin and chitosan were extracted from Penaeus semisulcatus waste collected from a shrimp processing landing center situated at Persian Gulf in south of Iran by chemical and microbial methods. Chitin and chitosan were extracted by alkali-acid treatment and the yields were 510 and 410mg/g, respectively. Demineralization is an important step in the chitin purification process from shrimp waste. Chemical extraction method included the use of NaOH solution and acetic acid. In microbial extraction, organic acids (lactic acid) produced by probiotic bacteria was used to demineralize microbial deproteinized shrimp shells. The study showed that the effectiveness of using lactic acid bacteria especially added Fe (NO3)3 as extra nitrogen source for demineralization of shrimp shells than chemical method (1750 against 810mg/g). Chitin and chitosan extracted from shrimp waste by chemical and microbial methods was crystalline powder, non-harmful and odorless, white and off-white, respectively. The moisture content was calculated as 63.8%. The amount of Ca, Fe, Cu and Mn present in the shells was 168, 35.58, 38.28 and 6.72mg/L, obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. The amount of calcium in the shells was 25 times higher than manganese. The results suggested Lactobacillus plantarum (PTTC 1058) is an attractive source of recovery for chitin and chitosan.
  A. Khanafari , A. Saberi , M. Azar , Gh. Vosooghi , Sh. Jamili and B. Sabbaghzadeh
  The carotenoid pigments specifically astaxanthin has many significant applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The goal of this research was the extraction of Astaxanthin from a certain Persian Gulf shrimp species waste (Penaeus semisulcatus), purification and identification of the pigment by chemical and microbial methods. Microbial fermentation was obtained by inoculation of two Lactobacillus species Lb. plantarum and Lb. acidophilus in the medium culture containing shrimp waste powder by the intervention of lactose sugar, yeast extract, the composition of Both and the coolage (-20 °C). The carotenoids were extracted by an organic solvent system. After purification of astaxanthin with the thin layer chromatography method by spectrophotometer, NMR and IR analysis the presence of astaxanthin esters was recognized in this specific species of Persian Gulf shrimp. Results obtained from this study showed that the coolage at –20 °C not only does not have an amplifying effect on the production of astaxanthin but also slightly reduces this effect. Also the effect of intervention of lactose sugar showed more effectiveness in producing astaxanthin than yeast extract or more than with the presence of both. The results also indicated that there is not much difference in the ability of producing the pigment by comparing both Lb. plantarum and Lb. acidophillus. Also results showed the microbial method of extraction of astaxanthin is more effective than chemical method. The pigment extracted from certain amount of shrimp powder, 23.128 mg/g, was calculated.
  A. Khanafari , H. Soudi and M. Miraboulfathi
  The potent mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 is a secondary metabolite of Aspergillus fungi that grow, on a variety of food and feed commodities at any stage during growth, harvest, storage and transportation. The occurrence of aflatoxin contamination is global, with severe problems especially prevalent in developing countries. In present study, corn samples were contaminated with aflatoxin B1 in the concentration of 240 µg/kg. Four trials were inoculated by Lactobacillus plantarum (PTCC 1058). Three control assays were analysed in the same conditions. All the assays were kneaded and incubated for 4-7 days at 37°C. Aflatoxin B1 was determined after extraction by HPLC. Results showed a drastic removal of the mycotoxin with a reduction of 77 % for Aflatoxin B1 by Lactobacillus plantarum. In the Inoculated corns, spore germination of A. flavus was totally inhibited. Results in inoculated spikes showed a high percentage of reduction of aflatoxin after incubation by Lb. plantarum. Gram staining of a sample from inoculated corns and microscopic observation demonstrated that the growth of A. flavus spores was totally inhibited by Lb. plantarum. Fungal spores were surrounded by Lactobacillus plantarum and spores were degraded.
  A. Khanafari , S. Eshghdoost and A. Mashinchian
  The different methods are used for the removal of heavy metals as important contaminants in water and wastewater. Biosorption is an alternative to traditional physicochemical in removing toxic metals from wastewaters and groundwater resources. In this study biosorption of lead and chromium ions from solution was studied using Bacillus circulans isolated from Anzali wetland in batch and biofilter modes and optimum conditions were determined. The experimental results showed 900-950 mg/L and 1050-1100 mg/L, for minimum bactericidal concentration and minimum inhibitory concenteration for lead and chromium, respectively. Results of metal concentration in solution containing 500 mg/L in batch culture showed a reduction about 65% and 48% in five and four days for lead and chromium, respectively. The highest value of lead and chromium uptake in solution with 500 mg/L was 78% and 40% in biofilter mode, respectively. The biosorption of lead and chromium were increased up to pH=5.5, 6, 5.5 and 7, respectively. In the other hand, maximum sorption occurred at neutral pH. There was a significant decreasing of biosorption levels by lowering pH fewer than 3. Accumulation of lead and chromium was determined by scanning electron microscopy analysis of the biofilm exposed to 500 mg/L metal concentration. Based on this analysis, the highest metal concentrations were observed in regions with including bacteria.
  A. Khanafari , H. Soudi , M. Miraboulfathi and R. Karamei Osboo
  This study assessed the binding of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) from contaminated solution by Lactobacillus plantarum PTCC 1058. This strain and AFB1 was incubated (1, 24, 48, 90 h at 37°C) and the amount of unbound AFB1 was quantities by HPLC. The concentration of AFB1 in solution was 0.5 ppm. The stabilities of the bacteria/AFB1 complexes were evaluated by determining the amount of AFB1 remaining bound following three washes. Effect of Incubation time on AFB1 Binding on viable and dead cells were evaluated at 1, 24, 48, 72 and 90 h time points. In 1 h 45% and in 90 h 100% AFB1 was removed from solution by this strain. Autoclaved bacteria didn’t remove AFB1 from solutions efficiently (31% in 1 h and 15% in 24 h). Bacteria in logarithmic growth phase retained 92% of the AFB1 initially bound after three washes. Bacterial binding of AFB1 by this strain was rapid and they were in logarithmic growth phase. These findings further support the ability of specific strains of lactic acid bacteria to bind selected dietary contaminants.
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