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Articles by A. Karimi
Total Records ( 9 ) for A. Karimi
  A. Karimi and R. Dianatpour
  Molecular and morphological analyses were used to study phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of two common sheep and camel strains of Echinococcus granulosus. Biometric analysis of fifteen characters showed that those 15 morphometric values of camel isolates have significantly higher than sheep isolates. Number of hooks, length and width total of the handle, the blade and the distance between the blade and the guard of large and small hooks were those characters that measured. Molecular analysis of ND1 fragment of mtDNA obtained from G1 and G6 genotypes using PCR-RFLP technique with two commercial restriction endonucleases enzyme AatI and BstHHI were in agreement with the morphological findings. PCR-RFLP band patterns using AatI demonstrated two bands of 170 and 301 bp in sheep strain whereas camel strain remained undigested. Besides PCR-RFLP profiles using BstHHI demonstrated two bands of 137 and 334 bp identical to the G6 genotype and one DNA fragment of 471 bp in G1 genotype. Because of the intraspecific variation of sheep and camel strains using both morphological and molecular tools concomitantly provides more accurate and reliable information about the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of E. granulosus isolates and emphasizes the valuable tools in transmission and epidemiological studies.
  A. Karimi
  Interest in the use of low phosphorus diets through inclusion of phytase in monogastric diets has risen due to environmental concerns. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of formulating diets varying in non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) levels and phytase sources on performance in broiler chicks. Ross® straight-run broiler chicks (n=576) were allocated to six dietary treatments, each replicated three times (32 chicks per pen) in a completely randomized design in a 3x2 factorial arrangements. Three dietary phases were employed, a starter (0-20d), grower (21-40d) and finisher (41-51d). The dietary treatments consisted of three NPP levels (0.45, 0.38, and 0.31% during starter period and 0.43, 0.36, and 0.29% during grower and finisher periods) with 500 F.T.U per kg of either sources of phytase, Natuphos® or Ronozyme P®. Measurements included body weight (BW), daily gain (DG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The results of this experiment showed that the chicks fed diet containing lower NPP levels had significantly lower body weight at 40 and 50d; lower daily gain during 21-40d; and higher feed conversion ratio during 21-40d period. The broiler performance was not affected by either source of phytase or the interaction between phytase source and NPP levels.
  Y.N. Min , F.Z. Liu , A. Hancock , C. Coto , C. Lu , A. Karimi , F. Yan and P.W. Waldroup
  A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding Rovabio Max, an exogenous enzyme containing xylanase, β-glucanase, pectinase, mannanase, phytase and α-galactosidase activity to broiler diets with normal or reduced nutrient levels. Positive control diets for 0-3 wk and 3-6 wk were prepared based on NRC (1994) recommendations with Lys adjusted to 1.2% for 0-3 wk and 1.1% for 3-6 wk. These diets were formulated with or without the addition of 20% Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) of known composition. Reduced nutrient diets were prepared by reducing dietary metabolizable energy by 40 kcal/lb (88 kcal/kg), Ca by 0.10% and available P by 0.12% (EPC) and by an additional reduction of 5% in essential amino acids (EPC+AA). All diets were then fed with or without the addition of Rovabio Max at 200 g/ton as suggested by the manufacturer. Each diet was fed to four pens of 60 male birds of a commercial strain (Cobb 500) maintained in litter floor pens. Birds were weighed and feed consumption determined at 21 and 42 d of age. Two birds per pen were killed and tibia ash determined at 21 and 42 d; five birds per pen were killed at 42 d to determine carcass dressing percentage and parts yield. Birds fed the EPC diets did not differ significantly from those fed the positive control diet for body weight, mortality, tibia ash, dressing percentage, or breast meat yield at any point in the study. Additional reduction in amino acid content of the diets (EPC+AA) resulted in a significant decrease in 42 d body weight and a reduction in 21 d tibia ash compared to birds fed the positive control diet. Numerical differences in feed conversion were observed for both levels of nutrient reduction but not commensurate to the reduction in dietary energy content. Therefore, response to any exogenous enzyme might be expected to be minimal. The only positive response to the addition of Rovabio Max was a significant improvement in 21 d tibia ash, due to the phytase activity of the enzyme combination. Inclusion of 20% DDGS in diets in the present study had no adverse effects on broiler performance. The response to the DDGS was significantly higher in diets with reduced amino acid levels; the DDGS sample in the present study contained similar levels of crude protein as in the assigned nutrient matrix but the quality of the product appeared to be superior as judged by the light color indicating minimal overheating. It would appear that the level of nutrient reduction in the present study was not sufficient to result in significant reduction in performance, other than tibia ash at 21 d. In order to demonstrate positive effects from this or other enzymes, it is necessary to have diets with a greater degree of nutrient reduction than imposed in the present study.
  Y.N. Min , F.Z. Liu , A. Karimi , C. Coto , C. Lu , F. Yan and P.W. Waldroup
  This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of a commercial carbohydrase preparation (Rovabio® Max AP) on protein and energy utilization of diets with 0 or 30% DDGS. One hundred and ninety two, 18-day old male broiler chicks of a commercial strain (Cobb 500) were randomly distributed among six treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. Each treatment was replicated four times, with six chicks per replicate. Treatments included two basal diets containing 0 or 30% of DDGS; each supplemented with or without an enzyme preparation fed at the level recommended by the manufacturer (1X), two (2X) and four times (4X) the recommended level. After a five-day adaptation period, excreta samples were collected for determination of AME and N retention (NR). Body weight, feed intake, feed conversion, fecal gross energy (GE) and N, AME, AMEn, GE digestibility and NR were determined. The results showed that weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and mortality rate were not significantly affected by level of DDGS or enzyme inclusion in the diet, or their interactions. Excreta N and GE were significantly increased by inclusion of 30% of DDGS in the basal diet. While AME and AMEn values were not affected by the addition of high level of DDGS in the diet, GE digestibility and NR were significantly affected. Supplementation of either basal diet with different levels of enzyme had no significant effects on excreta N content or AME, GE digestibility, or NR values. Moreover, the interaction between different levels of DDGS and enzyme levels on performance or nutrient utilization parameters were not significant. These data indicate that the addition of the enzyme preparation used in this trial was not effective in improving nutrient utilization of corn-soybean meal diets with or without DDGS.
  M.A. Soltani , A. Karimi , M.R. Bazargan-Lari and E. Shirangi
  Indices usually considered to measure uncertainty of parameters and optimality of reservoir operation rules are expected value or variance of the slacks in supplying water demands. However, indices like reliability range to average ratio of supplied water as well as the average ratio of allowed river flow to released water for planning horizon will lead to a better description of uncertainty measurement. Considering this index within the objective function will lead to a problem with discrete non-linear objective function that minimizing it will show a better improvement in reservoir operation planning which is the least sensitive to the uncertainty of inflows. In this research, this problem is formulated as optimized-simulation, while considering stochasticity of inflows by scenarios, which is optimized by differential evolutionary algorithm, combined with scenario optimization. Inflow scenarios show the uncertainty band of inputs which is narrowed in outputs, like, demand supplying through optimal reservoir operation planning and assessed by the coefficient of variation index defined above. Application of this problem formulation and solution in a real world case Zayandehrud Dam in Isfahan, Iran, shows the robustness and reliability of the operation rules in comparison with actual operation within the years 1975 to 1994.
  A. Karimi
  Genotypic analysis of 263 and 356 bp fragments of 18S rDNA obtained from Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica from Fars province using PCR-RFLP assay demonstrated that nucleotide sequences of F. hepatica from Iran differed to those reported in the other countries. PCR-RFLP bands profile using the DraI restriction enzyme differed markedly between F. hepatica and F. gigantica whereas, PCR-RFLP bands profile of F. hepatica and F. gigantica with restriction enzyme BfrI was similar together. The nucleotide sequencing results of 18S rDNA of F. hepatica and F. gigantica demonstrated 0.3% differences between Iranian F. hepatica and standard F. hepatica reported in genebank. This is the first time that molecular evidence had suggested the possible existence of an intermediate genotype of Fasciola in Iran, in addition to F. hepatica and F. gigantica as its 18S rDNA sequences were unique in that two different 18S rDNA sequences exist in the rDNA array within a single Fasciola worm. This micro heterogeneity is possibly due to sequence polymorphism among copies of the 18S rDNA array within the same worm. Based on our findings a PCR-RFLP should provide a valuable tool for the molecular identification and for studying the ecology, epidemiology and genetic structures of F. hepatica and F. gigantica especially in areas which both species co-exist, as Iran.
  O. Gharibi , K. Mirzaei , A. Karimi and H. Darabi
  Mixed infections caused by enteric pathogens such as bacteria, virus, protozoa and helminthes were reported in different literatures. This report also describes the co-infections caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa EL Tor with Shigella dysenteriae in a patient. A 36-year-old man was admitted in Fatemeh Zahra Hospital of Bushehr Iran with fever, vomiting and dysentery. His stool sample was cultured, for identification purposes TCBS, XLD and other media were used. V. cholerae and S. dysenteriae were identified. Both species were resistant to ampicillin and sensitive to nalidixic acid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol. Shigella was resistant to tetracycline. The results of the study showed that places where diarrheal diseases especially cholera are endemic, it is better to examine for those patients with dysentery for the presence of the V. cholerae O1. That will prevent the spread of pathogenic organism in the community.
  O. Gharibi , S. Zangene , N. Mohammadi , K. Mirzaei , A. Karimi , A. Gharibi and A. Khajehiean
  Antibiotics are drugs used for treatment of infections caused by bacteria. Misuse and overuse of these drugs have contributed to phenomena known as antibiotic resistance. In this research, the antimicrobial resistance of the Shigella has been determined. This descriptive research analyzed registered laboratory data of patients referred to Fatemeh Zahra Hospital of the Bushehr, Iran. Shigella was isolated from their cultured sample from the year 2002-2008. In this study, the total of 121 registered Shigella collected from 2002-2008 were analyzed. There were 62 cases of S. sonnei, 46 cases of S. flexneri, eight cases of S. boydii and five cases of S. dysenteriae among them. Furthermore, two cases of Shigella sonnei were collected from the blood and the rest from the watery stools of the infected patients. The following is the resistance pattern of these organisms; to ciprofloxacin, 4.25%; ceftizoxime, 8.62%; nalidixic acid, 12.12%; co-trimoxazole, 86.13% and to tetracycline, 93.02%. Results of antibiogram showed that highest rate of drug resistance belongs to tetracycline and Co-trimoxazole and the lowest belongs to ciprofloxacin and ceftizoxime. One of the important issue for clinicians, now a day is drug resistance of microorganisms. This phenomenon is increasing due to some factors such as improper use of antibiotics and irrational prescribing. These factors lead to development of new drug resistant species.
  B. Meshgi , A. Karimi and P. Shayan
  Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) was used to study the genetic variation of Fasciola hepatica in sheep, cattle and buffalo. DNA was extracted from adult worms collected from livers of each infected animal in a slaughter house at Gilan province Caspian Sea region of Iran and amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, using four oligonucleotide decamers with arbitrary DNA sequences as primers. RAPD patterns showed the specific but different pattern DNA fragments for each primer. The intraspecific similarity coefficient within three isolates of Fasciola hepatica was ranged between 78 to 100%. Present findings showed that the interspecific genetic distance was higher than intraspecific genetic distances (22-50% compare to 0-22%). Which similarity coefficient between sheep and buffalo strains were the lowest values (50%). The inferred phylogenetic tree on the fingerprinting of these isolates clearly demonstrated the existence of population genetic diversity sub structuring within Fasciola hepatica of sheep, cattle and buffalo of Iran, raising interesting questions on the host specificity, epidemiology (e.g., zoonotic transmission) and ecology of this fluke.
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