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Articles by A. Kamyab
Total Records ( 8 ) for A. Kamyab
  S. Sun , J. Brown , J. Firman , A. Kamyab and E. McGill
  The objective of these studies was to determine the digestible threonine requirement for maintenance in turkeys during the starter period. Amino acid requirement data can be determined in multiple fashions. One method for determining amino acid requirements is through modeling. A portion of the data required for a comprehensive model is the maintenance requirement. Two studies were conducted to determine the maintenance requirement for threonine during the starter period for turkeys. Day-old poults (192 birds) were randomly assigned to pens to provide for six replications of eight treatments in each trial and a low protein diet was formulated so that different levels of threonine could be fed to young turkeys. The maintenance requirements of threonine were 25.94 and 29.51 mg/bird/day in experiment 1 and experiment 2, respectively. This information, coupled with the amino acid requirements for growth, will allow for the construction of an effective model to predict amino acid requirements over a wide range of environment and physiological conditions.
  S. Sun , J. Brown , J. Firman , A. Kamyab and E. McGill
  The objective of these studies was to predict the valine requirement for maintenance in starting turkeys for use in a future modeling system. Amino acid requirement data can be determined in multiple fashions. One method for determining amino acid requirements is through modeling. A portion of the data required for a comprehensive model is the maintenance requirement. Two studies were conducted to determine the maintenance requirement for valine during the starter period for turkeys. Day-old poults (192 birds) were randomly assigned to pens to provide for six replications of eight treatments in two trials and a low protein diet was formulated so that different levels of valine could be fed to young turkeys. The maintenance requirements of valine were approximately 31 and 43 mg/bird/day in experiment 1 and experiment 2, respectively. This information, coupled with the amino acid requirements for growth, will allow for the construction of an effective model to predict amino acid requirements over a wide range of environmental and physiological conditions.
  Jeffre D. Firman , A. Kamyab and Heinz Leigh
  Seven fats were fed on a percent basis to Cobb-Cobb broilers over a seven week period to determine if there were any differences in broiler performance between fat sources. All of the birds were fed a diet that consisted primarily of corn, soybean meal and animal by-product meal. Each of the seven fats was fed to 35 birds per pen with seven replicate pens per treatment. Birds and feed were weighed on 21, 35 and 49 days with processing yield and cut-up on 50 days. There were few differences found when broiler performance was compared between fat sources. No differences were seen in processing yields as well. Data from this study would indicate that any of the fats used in this study will provide similar performance regardless of their differences in measured energy levels.
  Jeffre D. Firman , H. Leigh and A. Kamyab
  Soybean oil and an animal/vegetable blend were fed on an equal metabolizable energy basis to Cobb broilers over a seven week period in a commercial style, litter floored, curtain sided building in order to determine if there were any differences between the two fat sources when comparing feed intake, gain and feed:gain. All of the birds were fed a diet that consisted primarily of corn, soybean meal and animal by-product meal. There were three dietary phases with each phase having four increasing ME levels through increased fat content. Each phase had eight diets that were fed to 30 birds per pen with six replicates each. Birds and feed were weighed on days 21, 35 and 49 with processing for yield on day 50. The data shows that as the dietary fat increased, in some cases the birds consumed less feed and showed improved feed:gain. Body weight gain was not significantly different, however.
  J. McGill , E. McGill , A. Kamyab and J.D. Firman
  A floor pen trial was conducted to determine the effect of high peroxide value fats on performance of broilers in a normal immune state. Ross 708 Broilers were randomly assigned to 48 floor pens with each pen contained 30 birds. Dietary treatments were developed in a 3 x 2 factorial using three levels of fat rancidity, Peroxide Value (PV) of 0, 75 and 150. One half of each peroxide value diet also received an antioxidant at 125 ppm. Six dietary treatments with eight replicates were fed to broilers from hatch to day 49. Diets were formulated based on standard industry diets with the exception of fat being forced into the diet at 3% for the starter ration (0-3 wks), 6% in the grower ration (3-5 wks) and 6% in the finisher ration (5-7 wks). The trial measured the performance of the broilers based on the parameters of Feed Intake (FI), Weight Gain (WG) and feed conversion (F:G). An initial pen weight was taken on day 0 for each of the 48 pens and birds were weighed at 3, 5 and 7 weeks of age to calculate FE. At week 7, four birds per pen (32 birds/treatment) were sacrificed and processed in order to obtain a fat pad weight, carcass weight and percent meat yield. The results indicated that diets with a peroxide value of 75 or greater result in poorer feed conversion than the treatment with a peroxide value of 0. Furthermore, the addition of an antioxidant to the diets with a peroxide value of 75 or greater yielded a numerically improved feed conversion over the diets with the same peroxide value but no antioxidant.
  J. McGill , E. McGill , A. Kamyab and J.D. Firman
  A floor pen trial was conducted to determine the effect of high peroxide value fats on the performance of broilers in an immune challenged state. Ross 708 broilers were randomly assigned to 48 floor pens with each pen containing 30 birds. Dietary treatments were developed as a 3 x 2 factorial using three levels of fat rancidity, with Peroxide Values (PV) of 0, 75 and 150. One half of each peroxide value diet also received an antioxidant at 125 ppm. Six dietary treatments with eight replicates were fed to broilers from hatch to day 49. Diets were formulated based on standard industry diets with the exception of fat being forced into the diet at 3% for the starter ration (0-3 wks), 6% in the grower ration (3-5 wks) and 6% in the finisher ration (5-7 wks). At 4 weeks of age the broilers underwent a coccidial challenge. The trial measured the performance of the immune challenged broilers based on the parameters of Feed Intake (FI), Body Weight Gain (BWG) and feed conversion (F:G). An initial pen weight was taken on day 0 for each of the 48 pens. Birds were weighed at 3, 5 and 7 weeks of age to calculate F:G. At week 7, four birds per pen (32 birds/treatment) were sacrificed and processed in order to obtain a fat pad weight, carcass weight, percent meat yield and cecal scoring. The results indicated that birds consuming diets with a peroxide value of 75 or greater exhibited poorer feed conversion than the treatment with an acceptable peroxide value. Furthermore, diets with the added antioxidant demonstrated no statistical difference in feed conversion due to peroxide value. There were also no significant effects of the immune challenge in combination with peroxide levels on bird performance.
  E. McGill , A. Kamyab and J.D. Firman
  Two experiments were conducted with the objective of testing the effects of feeding a 15% CP diet with crystalline amino acid supplementation on the performance of broilers from 0-3 weeks of age. In both experiments, commercial broilers were fed a diet formulated to meet NRC requirements for the first seven days. The diet contained 23% CP and 3200 kcal/kg ME and also served as the Positive Control diet (PC). On day 7, birds were sorted by weight into battery pens with 5 birds per pen. Both experiments utilized the same six dietary treatments with eight replicates per treatment for a total of 48 pens. The remaining treatments consisted of: a 15% CP negative control diet with crystalline amino acids added back to meet required levels (NC), a NC diet + 0.1% cystine (NC + C), a NC diet + 0.1% threonine (NC + T), a NC diet + 0.1% glycine (NC + G) and a NC diet + 0.1% cystine, threonine and glycine (NC + C,T,G). Glutamic acid was added to all diets to maintain a 20% protein equivalent. All diets were formulated on a digestible basis and were designed to be isocaloric. At the conclusion of the experiments, Body Weight Gain (BWG), Feed Intake (FI) and Feed:Gain (F:G) were measured. In Experiment 1, significant differences (p<0.05) were found in BWG between the PC treatment and PC + C,T,G, although no significant differences in FI or F:G were observed. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in BWG, FI, or F:G among any of the other treatments. In Experiment 2, treatments had no effect (p>0.05) on performance. Overall, these results suggest that feeding a 15% CP diet + crystalline amino acids to broilers in the starter period can yield similar performance to a 23% CP diet.
  E. McGill , A. Kamyab and J.D. Firman
  Two experiments were conducted with the objective of testing the effects of feeding 13% CP diets with crystalline amino acid supplementation and various protein equivalents on the performance of broilers in the starter growth period. In each experiment, commercial broilers were fed a diet formulated to meet NRC requirements for the first seven days. The diet contained 23% CP and 3200 kcal/kg ME and also served as the Positive Control Diet (PC). On day 7, birds were sorted by weight into battery pens with 5 birds per pen. In the first experiment, six dietary treatments were utilized with eight replicates per treatment for a total of 48 pens. For the remaining dietary treatments, 13% CP diets were formulated and various levels of crystalline amino acids were added back to meet either digestible amino acid levels from a 22% CP diet from previous experiments from our lab at the University of Missouri (Guaiume, 2007) or digestible amino acid requirements set by Baker and coworkers (1993) using the ideal protein concept. One treatment using the University of Missouri values contained no glutamic acid and a low protein equivalent of 15.5% (MLPE), while others contained varying levels of glutamic acid to achieve a high protein equivalent of 20% (MHPE) or a mid-level protein equivalent of 18% (MMPE). Similarly, two treatments were developed using Baker et al. (1993) amino acid values and glutamic acid to achieve a 20% high protein equivalent (BHPE) or an 18% mid-level equivalent (BMPE). In Experiment 2, four dietary treatments with 12 replicates were utilized for a total of 48 pens. The same 23% CP diet used as the PC in Experiment 1 was utilized in Experiment 2. The remaining treatments in Experiment 2 consisted of 13% crude protein diets with crystalline amino acids added back to meet control levels and either no glutamic acid to yield a protein equivalent of 17.5% (PE-17.5), or glutamic acid added to meet an 18.75% (PE-18.75) or 20% (PE-20) protein equivalent. All diets were formulated on a digestible basis and were designed to be isocaloric. Birds received feed and water ad libitum. At the conclusion of each experiment, Body Weight Gain (BWG), Feed Intake (FI) and Feed:Gain (F:G) were measured. In Experiment 1, birds consuming the PC treatment achieved significantly greater (p<0.05) BWG than birds in any other treatment. A significant difference (p<0.05) in intake was seen between the BMPE treatment and all others. A significantly improved F:G (p<0.05) was observed in the PC treatment. Additionally, the BMPE treatment resulted in impaired F:G (p<0.05) when compared to the MMPE and MHPE treatments. In Experiment 2, birds receiving the PE-17.5 treatment gained significantly less weight (p<0.05) than those consuming other dietary treatments. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in feed intake. Birds in the PC groups displayed significantly improved F:G over all other treatments (p<0.05).
 
 
 
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