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Articles by A. Heydari
Total Records ( 8 ) for A. Heydari
  L. Naraghi , A. Heydari and F. Azaddisfani
  In this study, Talaromyces flavus, a fungal antagonist, was isolated from soil samples that were collected from cotton fields in Golestan province of Iran. Antagonistic effects of non-volatile extracts of T. flavus isolates on Verticillium dahliae growth were investigated separately in laboratory experiments. Different isolates of T. flavus caused variable percents of growth inhibition of V. dahliae. Among isolates, ten of them that caused more growth inhibition of V. dahliae than other isolates, were selected for greenhouse experiments. In this step, first inoculum of microsclerotia of V. dahliae and seed treatments affected by non-volatile extracts and ascospores suspension of ten isolates of T. flavus were prepared. For comparison of infection index in seed treatment, greenhouse experiment was performed as a completely randomized design with forty-three treatments and three replications. Results of disease evaluation showed that among seed treatments affected by ascospores suspension of T. flavus isolates, seed treatments of isolates TF-2, Tf-12 and TF-17 caused maximum decrease in Verticillium wilt index. However, among seed treatments affected by non-volatile extracts of T. flavus isolates, seed treatments of isolates TF-1, TF-17 and TF-13 resulted in maximum decrease in disease index.
  Gh. Khodakaramian , A. Heydari and G.M. Balestra
  Investigation of antagonistic activity of selected Pseudomonads bacterial strains against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri the causal agent of citrus bacterial canker disease was carried out in the laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Results of in vitro experiments showed that all bacterial strains were inhibitory on X. citri with various antagonistic activities. The most effective strains were selected and were evaluated in the greenhouse against citrus canker disease. Results of greenhouse experiments in application of antagonistic bacterial strains to control X. axonopodis pv. citri the causal agent of citrus bacterial canker disease were promising and selected strains reduced the number of disease spots between 23.8 to 64.0%.
  A. Heydari , I.J. Misaghi and G.M. Balestra
  Two field experiments were conducted in Safford and Tucson, Arizona to investigate the impact of three pre-emergence herbicides (pendimethalin, prometryn and trifluralin) on the efficacy of commonly used fungicides (metalaxyl, triadimenol and thiram) against Rhizoctonia solani a soil borne fungus causing cotton seedling damping-off. Pendimethalin, prometryn and trifluralin were applied to the field soil at the recommended field concentrations of 0.9, 1.3 and 0.7 kg active ingredient (a.i.) ha-1, respectively. In both field trials, seed treatment with fungicides caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in fungal pathogenicity based on the number of emerged cotton seedlings, relative to the control (not treated with the fungicide). In Tucson trail, only one of the test herbicides (pendimethalin) interfered with the ability of fungicides to reduce the pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani on cotton seedlings 15, 25 and 50 days after sowing. In Safford trial, the effectiveness of fungicides on fungal pathogenicity was reduced in the presence of pendimethalin and prometryn, 15, 25 and 50 days after sowing. Trifluralin showed no significant effect on the activity of fungicides in both field trials.
  S. Sobhan Ardakani , A. Heydari , L. Tayebi and M. Mohammadi
  This study was carried out at the Department of Plant Pathology of the Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection during the period from January 2009 to December 2009 to develop some new bioformulations and evaluate their efficacy in promoting cotton seedlings growth characteristics. The interest in the use of biological approaches to replace chemical agents in fertilizing soils or improve plant resistance against phytopathogens is at present in continuous growth. In this regard, the use of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) has a potential role in developing sustainable systems for crop production. In search of efficient PGPR strains with multiple activities, we prepared eight bioformulations using two isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens Q18 (B1) and CKK-3 (B2) which were isolated from rhizospheric soil and cotton roots in Varamin's cotton fields. Formulations included a talc-based powder and bentonite-based powder as inorganic carriers and peat and rice bran as organic carriers for increasing stability in interaction between associated PGPR and cotton plants. The results of a greenhouse experiment 60 days after sowing indicated that efficacy of BENT-B1, TAL-B1 and PT-B1 treatments were 1.38, 1.35 and 1.27 fold, BENT-B1, PT-B1 and TAL-B1 treatments were 1.42, 1.41 and 1.28 fold, RB-B2, TAL-B1 and RB-B1 treatments were 3.44, 3.37 and 2.90 fold and TAL-B1, RB-B2 and RB-B1 treatments were 2.60, 2.50 and 2.10, respectively on promoting seedling height, root length, seedling dry weight and root dry weight more effective than the control treatment.
  H. Jahanifar , A. Heydari , N. Hasanzadeh , H.R. Zamanizadeh , S. Rezaee and L. Naraghi
  In this research, antibiotic-resistant mutants of antagonistic bacteria to rifampicin (Rif) and nalidixic acid (Nal) were developed via spontaneous mutation and their effectiveness in controlling cotton seedling damping-off disease was compared with their wild types. Four wild types isolates belonged to Pseudomonas fluorescens and their mutants were tested against pre-and post emergence damping-off disease of cotton in greenhouse. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with ten treatments and four replicates. A virulent isolate of Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of cotton seedling damping-off disease was used in the study and the effectiveness of bacterial isolates was evaluated based on the number of healthy seedlings 15, 30, 45 and 60 days after sowing. Results indicated that all Rif-Nal resistant mutants showed more effectiveness in disease control than their wild types 15 and 30 days after sowing. However, at days 45 and 60 after sowing, only three mutants were more effective than their wild types in controlling cotton seedling damping-off disease. Results of this study suggest that spontaneous mutation may affect and enhance the activity and performance of antagonistic bacteria.
  L. Naraghi , H. Zareh-Maivan , A. Heydari and H. Afshari-Azad
  In this study, combinations of spores of a thermophilic fungus (Talaromyces flavus), Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) and microsclerotia of Verticillium dahliae under various temperature treatment (31-38°C) in triplicate trial, were investigated and results were compared with those of non-treated controls. Five cotton seeds were planted in each pot containing 3 kg of pasteurized soil. In each pot, combinations of 4x103 VAM spores, 2.5x10 9 spores of thermophilic fungus (T. flavus ) and 5x105 microsclerotia of V. dahliae were added. Symptoms of Verticillium wilt were observed after 45 days. Index of disease severity was measured. Results indicated that pre-heating of microsclerotia at 31 and 35°C for 10 and 14 h, respectively, caused a 15% reduction in leaf infection index. Presence of VAM and thermophilic fungus (T. flavus) spores caused 23 and 50% reductions in the disease development , respectively. Concurrent presence of mycorrhiza and thermophilic fungus spores caused a 10-20% reduction in disease development. These findings provide a promising approach to the control of Verticillium wilt of cotton. However, heat treatment of soil may prove difficult. Further studies in this regard are required and useful agricultural practices such as seasonal heating may be applied in the cotton fields.
  A. Heydari , M. Eslami , H. Roshanfekr , M. Bojarpur and M.R. Ghorbani
  An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of Calcium Soap Unsaturated Fatty Acids (CSUFA), with supplemental α-tocopheryl acetate (α-Toc) on laying hen’s performance and egg yolk cholesterol. Ninty six Leghorn hens (Hy-Line), from 38-46 weeks of age were used in a 2x3 factorial arrangement with tow levels of vitamin E (0 or 1000 mg kg-1 of diets) and three levels of CSUFA (0, 2 and 4% of diets) in a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replicates and four hens per replicate. Feed Intake (FI), Egg Production (EP), Egg Weight (EW), Yolk Weight (YW), Shell Thickness (ST), Haugh Unit (HU), Yolk Cholesterol (YC) and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) were measured. The result of this experiment indicated that EW, YW, FI, FCR were significantly (p<0.05) affected by fat levels. FI and FCR were decreased with fat levels from 0-4%. Different levels of dietary vitamin E had no significant effect on FI, EP, FCR, EW, YW, ST, HU and YC (p>0.05).
  A. Heydari , M. Eslami , H. Roshanfekr , M. Bojarpur and M.R. Ghorbani
  An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of Calcium Soap Unsaturated Fatty Acids (CSUFA), with supplemental α-Tocopheryl acetate (α-Toc) on laying hen’s performance and egg yolk cholesterol. About 96 Leghorn hens (Hy-Line), from 38-46 weeks of age were used in a 2x3 factorial arrangement with tow levels of vitamin E (0 or 1000 mg kg-1 of diets) and three levels of CSUFA (0, 2 and 4% of diets) in a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replicates and four hens per replicate. Feed Intake (FI), Egg Production (EP), Egg Weight (EW), Yolk Weight (YW), Shell Thickness (ST), Haugh Unit (HU), Yolk Cholesterol (YC) and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) were measured. The result of this experiment indicated that EW, YW, FI, FCR were significantly (p<0.05) affected by fat levels. FI and FCR were decreased with fat levels from 0-4%. Different levels of dietary vitamin E had no significant effect on FI, EP, FCR, EW, YW, ST, HU and YC (p>0.05).
 
 
 
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