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Articles by A. Hassan
Total Records ( 5 ) for A. Hassan
  M.H. Akbar , O.H. Ahmed , A.S. Jamaluddin , N.M. Nik Ab. Majid , H. Abdul-Hamid , S. Jusop , A. Hassan , K.H. Yusof and Arifin Abdu
  Problem statement: The soil properties of tropical rain forest in Southeast Asia have been characterized by several researchers; however empirical data on soil characteristics under rehabilitation program are still limited or even lacking. This research is important to determine the soil physical and chemical properties of a rehabilitated degraded forest land 19 years after planting with various indigenous species in comparison with adjacent secondary forests and to elucidate the soil fertility status in rehabilitated and secondary forests by using Soil Fertility Index (SFI) and Soil Evaluation Factor (SEF). Approach: Soil samples were collected from both locations which were rehabilitated forest and secondary forest (Nirwana forest) at University Putra Malaysia, Bintulu Sarawak Campus. The plot size of each experimental site was 20x20 m. An auger was used to take soil samples from two depths, namely 0-10 and 10-20 cm. For soil profile, the soil samples were collected from different depths up to 100 cm according to the soil horizons. The samples were air-dried, homogenized and sieved to pass a 2 mm mesh sieve for further analysis. The physical analysis consisted of bulk density and soil moisture content. For chemical analysis, soil acidity, soil organic matter, total organic carbon, available P, exchangeable Al, exchangeable ammonium and nitrate, exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K) and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) were determined. The soil fertility status was determined based on SFI and SEF values for both rehabilitated and secondary forests. Results: The bulk density of the rehabilitated forest ranged between 0.70 and 1.29 g cm-3 and that of the secondary forest was 0.64-0.76 g cm-3. The soil moisture content of the rehabilitated forest was 23.31-51.03% while that of secondary forest was 41.06-41.49%. The range pH (water) of the rehabilitated forest was 4.5-5.0 and that of the secondary forest range was 4.2-4.3. Furthermore, the content of SOM in the rehabilitated forest was 2.5-5.8%. On other hand, the range for the secondary was 4.1-4.6%. The exchangeable Al of the rehabilitated forest was 0.8-2.5 cmolckg-1 and that of the secondary forest was 1.6-1.7 cmolckg-1. The CEC of the rehabilitated forest was 1.4-11.8 cmolckg-1, while that of the secondary forest was 4.3-4.5 cmolckg-1. Based on SFI and SEF values, the secondary forest had a lower fertility status compared to the rehabilitated forest. Moreover, the SEF value of the secondary forest was below 5, while some of the plots of rehabilitated forest had the SEF values greater than 5. Conclusion: It can be concluded that both rehabilitated and secondary forests have significant differences based on selected physical and chemical properties. Moreover, the soil fertility status at rehabilitated plots was comparatively higher than secondary forest indicating a good potential of ‘Miyawaki’ forest rehabilitation technique in rehabilitating and replenishing soil fertility status of degraded forest land.
  B.T. Saga , O.H. Ahmed , A.S. Jamaluddin , H. Abdul-Hamid , S. Jusop , N.M. Nik Ab. Majid , A. Hassan , K.H. Yusof and Arifin Abdu
  Problem statement: The tropical rain forests in Southeast Asia have been characterize by several researchers. However empirical data on soil characteristics under degraded forest land in tropical rain forest and rehabilitated program are limited. A study was conducted to evaluate the soil orphology, mineralogical and sesquioxide properties of a rehabilitated degraded forest land (19 years after it was planted with various indigenous species) in comparison with an adjacent secondary forest. Approach: Soil samples were air-dried and pass through a 2 mm sieve. Soil morphology was determined based on field observation. The non-crystalline (amorphous) of Al, Fe and Si oxides and hydroxides (Alo, Feo and Sio) were extracted with ammonium oxalate while the Dithionate-Citrate- Bicarbonate (DCB) method was used for extracting (crystalline) the Al, Fe and Si oxides and hydroxides (Ald, Fed and Sid). The concentrations of extracted Al, Fe and Si were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mineralogical compositions were identified by X-ray diffraction method. Results: The A-horizon of secondary forest was darker and thicker than that of the rehabilitated forest. Root mat at the secondary forest was well-developed compared to the rehabilitated forest. The clay minerals were dominated with kaolinite and illite to a lesser extent of goethite and hematite accompanied with low values of activity ratio of Al and Fe oxides and hydroxides, indicating that the soils were highly weathered. Conclusion/Recommendations: The difference between rehabilitated and secondary forests was root abundance where secondary forest had most. Good root penetration in the secondary forest indicates that the soil texture there was not heavy. Soils in the rehabilitated and secondary forests were strongly weathered (high presence of kaolin minerals), but the low presence of sesquioxides suggests that they are yet to reached the ultimately weathered phase. The soil properties in terms of morphology, sesquioxides and clay minerals should be taken into account for better management of forest rehabilitation program in tropical regions.
  R. Wahab , A. Mohamed , M.T. Mustafa and A. Hassan
  Two age-groups (2 and 4 years old culms) of cultivated Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. were harvested and investigated for their physical characteristics and anatomical properties. The physical characteristics did not show significant differences between both the 2 and 4 year-old bamboo. However, variation in anatomical properties was observed between the two age-group bamboos. The anatomical structure in bamboo has a very strong correlation with the age, location where the samples were taken, moisture content and the basic density. The basic density is higher in the 4 year-old culms than in the 2 year-old by 5 to 8% and increases from lower to upper internodes showing that there is a maturation process going on between the two age-groups relative to the two of tissue types. The frequency of vascular bundles is greater at the bottom and top portion than in the middle portion of both age-groups. There was no difference in vessel diameter between the 2 and 4 year-old culms at the middle of the culms wall thickness. The cell wall thickness of both parenchyma and fibre were greater in the 4 year-old than in the 2 year-old culms.
  I.M. Rafiqul , A. Hassan , G. Sulebele , C.A. Orosco , P. Roustaian and K.C.A. Jalal
  A Study was conducted on the salt stress culture of blue green algae S. fusiformis. The blue green algae S. fusiformis was grown at the different salinity of sea water as 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 1.2, 1.5, 3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 14.0, 15.0, 16.0, 17.0 and 18.0 ppt which were enriched with Zarouk medium. A new steady state was established after carry out an initial lag phase. The observed growth rate was slower and inversely related with concentration of salt stress i.e. the more was salinity, the slower was growth rate during the experiment. Instead of growth, a decrease in biomass was also observed in high salinity. The specific growth rate at all salt stress culture was lower than that of control (0 ppt). The result showed that the protein and carbohydrate content were varied from 37.3 to 56.1% and 16.8 to 31.4 %, respectively. At 1.0 and 1.2 ppt a marked increase in lipids of 19.6 and 15.6% were observed. Highest carotenoid content of 3.53 mg-1 g dry weight was found at 16 ppt, which is significantly (P<0.05) higher compared to control. Phycocyanin was high at 1 ppt (93 mg 1 g dry weight), which is significantly lower than that of control. The result showed that the production of lipids and carotenes in salt stress culture which would be 1-1.2 ppt and 15-16, ppt respectively in laboratory culture conditions.
  T.D. Dinh , M.A. Ambak , A. Hassan and N.T. Phuong
  This study describe the reproductive biological characteristics and population parameters of the goby, Pseudapocryptes elongatus (Cuvier, 1816), in the coastal mud flat areas of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. A total of 1058 specimens was collected from January 2004 to June 2005 and results showed that the breeding season occurred with two spawning peaks in July and October. Length at first maturity (Lm) was 15.4 and 16.3 cm for females and males, respectively. The batch fecundity estimates ranged from 2,652 to 29,406 hydrated oocytes per ovary in the fish ranging from 12.8 to 22.4 cm TL. Length frequency data of the goby ranging from 9.0 to 24.0 cm TL were analyzed using the FiSAT II software. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were determined as L8 = 25.9 cm, K = 0.66 year-1 and to = - 0.26 year-1. The longevity (tmax) of the goby was estimated to be 4.55 years. There were two recruitment peaks with very different magnitudes and the means of these two peaks were separated by an interval of 5 months. Length at first capture (Lc) was 10.05 cm, the instantaneous fishing mortality rate (F = 1.38 year-1) and natural mortality rate (M = 1.46 year-1) accounted for 49 and 51% of the total mortality (Z = 2.84 year-1), respectively. Relative yield-per-recruit and biomass-per-recruit analyses gave Emax = 0.65, E0.1= 0.55 and E0.5 = 0.33. Results show that the fish stock is subjected to growth overexploitation.
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