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Articles by A. D. Morris
Total Records ( 5 ) for A. D. Morris
  C. J. Schofield , J. D. Ellis , A. Ellingford , A. D. Morris and G. P. Leese
  Aims  To ascertain which perifoveal changes on digital retinal screening in diabetes predict the need for subsequent macular grid or focal laser therapy.

Methods  Between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2005, all consecutive retinal images where any lesion was within one disc diameter of the fovea were reviewed. Patients were categorized by lesion at screening as having microaneurysm, single blot haemorrhage, multiple blot haemorrhages and exudates or circinate exudates within one disc diameter of the fovea. We compared these retinal images with the findings on slit lamp examination and the related decision for laser photocoagulation.

Results  Four hundred and twenty-four retinal images were identified. Of these, 52 were excluded, principally because of an interval between photography and clinic attendance of greater than 120 days, leaving 372 retinal images in the study group (313 patients). No patients with a single blot haemorrhage required immediate laser therapy at ophthalmology review compared with 13 (23%) of those with multiple blot haemorrhages and 36 (16%) of those with exudates or circinate lesions (P < 0.001). Thirty-nine patients with a single blot haemorrhage who did not require laser therapy underwent ongoing follow-up. None of these underwent laser therapy for maculopathy within the study time frame (9 months from initial screening event).

Conclusions  In this study, no patients with a single blot haemorrhage within one disc diameter of the fovea on digital retinal screening required laser treatment.

  J. A. Sugden , J. I. Davies , M. D. Witham , A. D. Morris and A. D. Struthers
  Aims  To test whether a single large dose of vitamin D2 can improve endothelial function in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.

Methods  Double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled randomized trial. A single dose of 100 000 IU vitamin D2 or placebo was administered to patients with Type 2 diabetes over the winter, when levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D were likely to be lowest. Patients were enrolled if their baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was < 50 nmol/l. Endothelial function and blood pressure were measured and fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and 8 weeks after administration of vitamin D.

Results  Forty-nine per cent of subjects screened had 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels < 50 nmol/l. Thirty-four subjects completed the study, with a mean age of 64 years and a baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 38.3 nmol/l. Vitamin D supplementation increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels by 15.3 nmol/l relative to placebo and significantly improved flow mediated vasodilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery by 2.3%. The improvement in FMD remained significant after adjusting for changes in blood pressure. Vitamin D supplementation significantly decreased systolic blood pressure by 14 mmHg compared with placebo; this did not correlate with change in FMD.

Conclusions  Vitamin D insufficiency is common in patients with Type 2 diabetes during winter in Scotland. A single large dose of oral vitamin D2 improves endothelial function in patients with Type 2 diabetes and vitamin D insufficiency.

  L. A. Donnelly , A. S. F. Doney , A. D. Morris , C. N. A. Palmer and P. T. Donnan
  Aims  To determine the patterns and predictors of long-term adherence to statin therapy in all patients with diabetes in the community setting.

Methods  We retrospectively studied patients with diabetes who were resident in Tayside, Scotland from 1 January 1989 to 31 May 2003 and initiated statin treatment during that time. The main outcome measure was percentage of days covered (PDC) by a statin, calculated at regular intervals. Predictors of suboptimal adherence (PDC < 80%) were identified using generalized linear models for repeated measures.

Results  Six thousand four hundred and sixty-two patients were included in the study. In the first year, the mean PDC was 87, 61% in the first and second quarter, respectively, and 65% after 13 years. Less than 50% of patients maintained a PDC of > 80% after 13 years. Predictors of poor long-term adherence were younger age, higher HbA1c, no history of smoking, no cardiovascular morbidity at baseline and occurrence of cardiovascular disease after statin commencement.

Conclusions  This study suggests that barriers to long-term adherence to statins tend to arise early on in the therapeutic course. In general, long-term adherence is poor in patients with diabetes, especially among those with few other cardiovascular risk factors.

  K. N. Barnett , S. A. Ogston , M. E. T. McMurdo , A. D. Morris and J. M. M. Evans
  Aims  To determine absolute and relative risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among patients newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes.

Methods  In an observational cohort study using record-linkage databases, based in Tayside, Scotland, UK, we identified newly diagnosed patients with Type 2 diabetes in 1993-2004. We also identified a set of non-diabetic comparators from lists of patients registered with a general practice, individually matched to the diabetic patients by sex, age and deprivation. We followed up patients for mortality and cardiovascular mortality over a 12-year period and calculated hazard ratios using Cox regression.

Results  There were 10 532 patients with Type 2 diabetes and 21 056 non-diabetic comparators. Diabetic patients in every age/sex group had higher absolute mortality rates. Even taking deprivation into account, the hazard ratio for mortality was 1.32 (95% CI 1.25-1.40), decreasing to 1.15 (1.09-1.22) after adjusting for pre-existing cardiovascular disease. The hazard ratios for cardiovascular mortality were higher, decreasing from 1.51 (1.37-1.67) to 1.23 (1.11-1.36) after adjusting for pre-existing cardiovascular disease. The hazard ratios decreased with increasing age at diagnosis, although the difference in absolute rate of mortality increased slightly with age. Increased mortality risks were only evident 2 years after diagnosis and increased thereafter.

Conclusions  Patients with Type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality compared with non-diabetic comparators, although this is not observable immediately after diagnosis. Age at diagnosis and duration of the disease independently affect absolute and relative mortality risk.

  H. A. Deshmukh , C. N. A. Palmer , A. D. Morris and H. M. Colhoun


To replicate the association of genetic variants with estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albuminuria, which has been found in recent genome-wide studies in patients with Type 2 diabetes.


We evaluated 16 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms for estimated GFR in 3028 patients with Type 2 diabetes sampled from clinics across Tayside, Scotland, UK, who were included in the Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research Tayside (GoDARTs) study. These single nucleotide polymorphisms were tested for their association with estimated GFR at entry to the study, with albuminuria, and with time to stage 3B chronic kidney disease (estimated GFR<45 ml/min/1.73 m2). We also stratified the effects on estimated GFR in patients with (= 2096) and without albuminuria (= 613).


rs1260326 in GCKR (β=1.30, = 3.23E-03), rs17319721 in SHROOM3 (β = −1.28, P-value = 3.18E-03) and rs12917707 in UMOD (β = 2.0, P-value = 8.84E-04) were significantly associated with baseline estimated GFR. Analysis of effects on estimated GFR, stratified by albuminuria status, showed that in those without albuminuria (normoalbuminura; = 613), UMOD had a significantly stronger effect on estimated GFR (βnormo = 4.03 ± 1.23 vs βalbuminuria = 1.72 ± 0.76, = 0.002) compared with those with albuminuria, while GCKRnormo = 0.45 ± 0.89 vs βalbuminuria = 1.12 ± 0.55, = 0.08) and SHROOM3normo = −0.07 ± 0.89 vs βalbuminuria = −1.43 ± 0.53, = 0.003) had a stronger effect on estimated GFR in those with albuminuria. UMOD was also associated with a lower rate of transition to stage 3B chronic kidney disease (hazard ratio = 0.83[0.70, 0.99], = 0.03).


The genetic variants that regulate estimated GFR in the general population tend to have similar effects in patients with Type 2 diabetes and in this latter population, it is important to adjust for albuminuria status while investigating the genetic determinants of renal function.

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