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Articles by A. Balasundaram
Total Records ( 4 ) for A. Balasundaram
  A. Balasundaram , P. Rathna Kumari , A. Stalin , V. Masilamani and George John
  A study was carried out to determine the influence of a commercial probiotic (‘Aqualact’) and dried leaf powder of Cassia auriculata against Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection in the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Histological studies in the hepatopancreas and gills of prawns, during infectivity trials, showed bacterial invasion and multiplication in their lumens. Oedema and cell necrosis were the major pathological changes observed in gills and hepatopancreas. Degenerative changes in the electrophoretic pattern of muscle proteins were proportional to the concentration of vibrios infected. Infected prawns fed on probiotic supplemented feed could show a regaining trend towards normal protein bands. Marked reduction in mortality could be observed in infected prawns fed on feed supplemented with probiotic as well as with powdered Cassia auriculata leaves.
  George John , P. Rathna Kumari and A. Balasundaram
  Present study was carried out to assess the influence of three medicinal plants, Ocimum bascilicum, Adathoda vasica and Calendula officinalis on the biochemical parameters of normal and Aeromonas hydrophila-infected fish-labeo rohita. Fish of length, 5-9 cm were selected for the experiment. Five sets each of healthy live specimens and A. hydrophila-infected fish were kept in parallel pairs and each pair of fish sets were fed ad libitum for 15 days on one of the following compounded feeds: namely, normal fish feed (control groups), feeds supplemented at 3% concentrations with extracts of three plants. At the culmination of feeding experiment, biochemical analysis of serum for enzymes Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate transferase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Phospho Transferase (SGPT), Alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, total sugars, serum protein were carried out from each set. Highest level of SGOT, SGPT, ACP was recorded in Ocimum basilicum supplemented group (60.0, 54.1, 26.3 mg dL-1). When infected maximum level was also observed in Ocimum basilicum supplemented group for SGOT, ACP (22.3, 19.3 mg dL-1) and for SGPT in Calendula officinalis supplemented group (17.5 mg dL-1). Lipid profile show contrasting result with maximum value recorded in infected animals, triglyceride and cholesterol showed maximum value in Calendula officinalis supplemented group (88.2, 96.4 mg dL-1) and for total sugar Ocimum basilicum supplemented group recorded maximum (96.3 mg dL-1). Highest serum protein content was in Calendula officinalis supplemented group (6.0 mg dL-1) and in infected animals in control with 3.2 mg dL-1. This study revealed that feed supplementation of three medicinal plant extracts alters biochemical parameters to overcome disease induced stress in fishes.
  A. Balasundaram , P. Rathna Kumari , P. Kolanchinathan , V. Masilamani and George John
  The present study evaluated genetic variation in Aeromonas hydrophila strains using PCR-RAPD and their varied susceptibility to phyto-extract. Four strains of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from skin infections of common freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio were characterized by various biochemical methods, physiological tests and PCR- RAPD. Antimicrobial activity of the leaf extracts of three medicinal plants, Ocimum sanctum, Adathoda vasica and Calendula officinalis were tested against the four strains of A. hydrophila by disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) method. Antagonistic effects of leaf extracts against A. hydrophila strains were assessed by co-culture method. RAPD analysis showed that all the microbes isolated from skin infection belong to the same species but there was no 100% genetic similarity among them Dendrogram constructed by UPGMA clearly supported the PCR pattern of genetic variability among the strains. This study revealed that Aeromonas hydophila exhibits genetic variability and varied susceptibility towards phyto-extracts. Results indicated that phyto-extracts offers a promising alternative to the use of antibiotics in controlling Aeromonas hydrophila.
  A. Balasundaram , P. Rathna Kumari , George John and B.N. Selvakumar
  The objective of this study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of the methanolic leaf extracts of two Indian medicinal plants Clitoria ternatea and Achyranthes aspera on urinary pathogens. Urinary pathogens were isolated from 127 urine samples taken from subjects diagnosed with Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). Microorganisms were plated on Muller-Hinton agar. Plant extracts were tested by disc diffusion method and the zones of inhibition against pathogenic strains were measured. Clitoria ternatea and Achyranthes aspera showed antimicrobial activity against seven and five strains of urinary pathogens, respectively. Interestingly both plants showed antimicrobial activity against MRSA (Methicilin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus). These results showed that crude plant extracts has wide range of antibacterial activity against UTI pathogen particularly against MRSA.
 
 
 
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