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Articles by A. Arafa
Total Records ( 3 ) for A. Arafa
  N.M. Hagag , A. Arafa , M.A. Shalaby , A.A. El-Sanousi and M.M. Aly
  Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) caused by influenza A H5N1 virus, poses a significant threat to the poultry industry and humans in Egypt. Since it was first recognized in 2006, the disease has become enzootic in poultry throughout Egypt and still circulates in the poultry population, so the ability to rapidly recognize AIVs in biological specimens is critical for limiting further spread of the disease in poultry. Application of molecular methods such as Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and Real time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR) as a rapid, specific and sensitive detection methods currently used in national and reference laboratories worldwide. In this study a comparison of the specificity and sensitivity between 2 different formats of conventional RT-PCR (one and two steps) and 3 different formats of RRT-PCR (one step using TaqMan® probe, two steps using TaqMan® probe and two steps using hybridization® probe) were performed and compared as a diagnostic tools for H5N1 virus detection. All these formats of PCRs appeared within the same specificity for H5 gene detection, while they showed difference in sensitivity as the one step conventional RT-PCR showed to be more sensitive than two steps conventional RT-PCR by 10 folds, one step RRT-PCR TaqMan® probe was more sensitive than two steps RRT-PCR TaqMan® probe by 10 folds, two steps RRT-PCR hyberidization® probe is more sensitive than two steps RRT-PCR TaqMan® probe by 100 folds, finally two step RRT-PCR using hyperidization® probe is more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR two steps by 1000 folds. Fifty one field samples were further tested by all mentioned PCR formats the results were the same of that obtained in the sensitivity experiment and agreed with them in placing hybridization probe system of higher sensitivity than TaqMan one step than TaqMan two steps and conventional PCR were of the lowest sensitivity although one step showed higher sensitivity than two steps.
  N.M. Hagag , A. Arafa , M.H. EL-Hussieny , M.M. Aly , Ahmed A. El-Sanousi and M.A. Shalaby
  The highly pathogenic Avian influenza virus H5N1 (HPAIV-H5N1) represents an important poultry pathogen and a major havoc to the poultry industry. Furthermore, H5N1 infections in poultry constitute a threat to mammals including humans. Egypt has been affected by a HPAI H5N1 since 2006 and the virus still circulates in poultry population until now. Among the great number of species affected by the virus, ostrich have been occasionally infected worldwide. In the present study, we report a detailed molecular characterization of H5N1 virus isolated from ostrich farm during 2010 and study the virulence markers and other point mutations in HA, NA and other internal genes and proteins associated with traits such as specific-host receptor affinity and some antiviral resistance markers.
  N.M. Hagag , A. Arafa , M.H. EL-Hussieny , M.M. Aly , Ahmed A. El-Sanousi and M.A. Shalaby
  Science 2006 Egypt has reported a severe crisis of highly pathogenic Avian influenza (H5N1) virus infections in poultry as well as a higher number of recorded cases in human than any other country. The H5N1 viruses continue to cause outbreaks in poultry with sporadic human infections. Viral determinants of virulence and transmissibility are still poorly understood, lysine at position 627 of the polymerase subunit PB2 (PB2-627K) is known to be important for Avian influenza virus adaptation to mammals. In the present study we molecularly characterize PB2 gene for 9 Egyptian H5N1 isolates form 2010 to 2011, phylogenic analysis of these viruses give genetic prospective of the virus circulating in Egypt, identifying genetic evolution and mutations associated with enhance replication and virulence in mammalian species.
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