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Articles by A. Ahmed
Total Records ( 15 ) for A. Ahmed
  Mahbub-E-Sobhani , N. Haque , A.T.M.K. Islam , U. Salma , A. Ahmed , I.J. Mukti and A.K.M.F. Haque
  In this study, a typical psycho-neuro-endocrino-immune network has been developed in which, Corticotrophin Releasing Hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), glucocorticoids (GC), β-endorphin (β-end) and met-enkephalin (Met-enk) are found as important endocrine components and T cells, B cells, monocytes/macrophages, Natural Killer (NK) cells and their cytokines that is tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukins such as IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 etc., are found as important immune components. Finally, it has been shown that, brief naturalistic stressors have different immune modulatory activities such as, cause shift of TH1 to TH2 cytokine response which is harmful to one`s homeostasis and increase disease susceptibility.
  Mahbub-E- Sobhani , N. Haque , A.T.M.K. Islam , U. Salma , A. Ahmed , I.J. Mukti and A.K.M.F. Haque
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  M. I Ahmed , W. S Aronow , M. H Criqui , I Aban , T. E Love , E. J Eichhorn and A. Ahmed
 

Background— The effect of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) on outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) has not been examined in propensity-matched studies.

Methods and Results— Of the 2689 patients with advanced chronic systolic HF in the Beta-Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial, 441 had a history of PAD. Propensity scores for a history of PAD, calculated for each patient using a multivariable logistic regression model, were used to assemble a matched cohort of 299 and 1015 patients, respectively, with and without PAD who were well balanced on 65 measured baseline characteristics. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% CIs for associations between PAD and outcomes during 4.1 years of follow-up. Patients had a mean age of 63±11 years, 19% were women, and 19% were black. All-cause mortality occurred in 43% and 33% of patients with and without a history of PAD, respectively (hazard ratio when PAD was compared with no history of PAD, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.72; P=0.001). All-cause hospitalization occurred in 75% and 63% of patients with and without PAD, respectively (hazard ratio when PAD was compared with no history of PAD, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.58; P<0.0001). PAD-associated hazard ratios for cardiovascular mortality, HF mortality, and HF hospitalization were 1.31 (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.63; P=0.019), 1.40 (95% CI, 0.97 to 2.02; P=0.076), and 1.05 (95% CI, 0.86 to 1.29; P=0.635), respectively.

Conclusions— In a well-balanced propensity-matched population of chronic systolic HF patients, a history of PAD was independently associated with increased mortality and hospitalization.

  C. B Bowling , B Pitt , M. I Ahmed , I. B Aban , P. W Sanders , M Mujib , R. C Campbell , T. E Love , W. S Aronow , R. M Allman , G. L Bakris and A. Ahmed
 

Background— Little is known about the effects of hypokalemia on outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) and chronic kidney disease.

Methods and Results— Of the 7788 patients with chronic HF in the Digitalis Investigation Group trial, 2793 had chronic kidney disease, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Of these, 527 had hypokalemia (serum potassium <4 mEq/L; mild) and 2266 had normokalemia (4 to 4.9 mEq/L). Propensity scores for hypokalemia were used to assemble a balanced cohort of 522 pairs of patients with hypokalemia and normokalemia. All-cause mortality occurred in 48% and 36% of patients with hypokalemia and normokalemia, respectively, during 57 months of follow-up (matched hazard ratio when hypokalemia was compared with normokalemia, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.25 to 1.95; P<0.0001). Matched hazard ratios (95% CIs) for cardiovascular and HF mortalities and all-cause, cardiovascular, and HF hospitalizations were 1.65 (1.29 to 2.11; P<0.0001), 1.82 (1.28 to 2.57; P<0.0001), 1.16 (1.00 to 1.35; P=0.036), 1.27 (1.08 to 1.50; P=0.004), and 1.29 (1.05 to 1.58; P=0.014), respectively. Among 453 pairs of balanced patients with HF and chronic kidney disease, all-cause mortality occurred in 47% and 38% of patients with mild hypokalemia (3.5 to 3.9 mEq/L) and normokalemia, respectively (matched hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.66; P=0.027). Among 169 pairs of balanced patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate <45 mL/min per 1.73 m2, all-cause mortality occurred in 57% and 47% of patients with hypokalemia (<4 mEq/L; mild) and normokalemia, respectively (matched hazard ratio, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.19; P=0.020).

Conclusions— In patients with HF and chronic kidney disease, hypokalemia (serum potassium <4 mEq/L) is common and associated with increased mortality and hospitalization.

  P. Hertz , V. Bril , A. Orszag , A. Ahmed , E. Ng , P. Nwe Nwe , M. Ngo and B. A. Perkins
  Aim  With the goal of identifying a valid biomarker of early diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy, we aimed to identify the most reliable in vivo corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) parameter for detection of abnormality of small nerve fibre morphology.

Methods  Cross-sectional examination of 46 subjects (26 with Type 1 diabetes and 20 healthy volunteers) examined by corneal confocal microscopy for intra- and interobserver reproducibility by the intraclass correlation coefficient method. Corneal nerve fibre density, nerve branch density, nerve fibre length and tortuosity were measured on the same day that subjects underwent clinical and electrophysiological examination.

Results  The 26 subjects with Type 1 diabetes had mean age and diabetes duration 42.8 ± 16.9 and 22.7 ± 16.4 years, respectively. Twelve of those subjects (46%) did not meet criteria for diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy, while five (19%) had mild, three (12%) had moderate and six (23%) had severe diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy. None of the healthy volunteers (mean age 41.4 ± 17.3 years) had polyneuropathy. Re-examination of selected corneal confocal microscopy images or sets of 40 images yielded very good to excellent intraclass correlation coefficients for all parameters. However, only one parameter (corneal nerve fibre length) emerged with consistently very good reproducibility using a clinically relevant ‘study-level’ protocol of subject re-examination (intra-observer intraclass correlation coefficient 0.72; interobserver intraclass correlation coefficient 0.73). Despite no differences in intraclass correlation coefficient between subgroups, corneal nerve fibre length was significantly lower (14.76 vs. 16.15 mm/mm2, P = 0.04) in those with diabetes.

Conclusions  Development of corneal confocal microscopy may need to focus on the measurement of corneal nerve fibre length, as it appears to have superior reliability in comparison with other parameters, and as evidence exists for its potential as a clinical biomarker of early diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy.

  M. A. Ganie , B. A. Laway , S. Nisar , M. M. Wani , M. L. Khurana , F. Ahmad , S. Ahmed , P. Gupta , I. Ali , I. Shabir , A. Shadan , A. Ahmed and S. Tufail
  Aims  Wolfram syndrome, also known as DIDMOAD, is a relatively rare inherited neurodegenerative disorder, first evident in childhood as an association of juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy, followed by diabetes insipidus and deafness. The aim of the study was to examine the clinical profile of patients with DIDMOAD syndrome presenting to a tertiary care hospital in north India.

Methods  Clinical presentation of juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus fulfilling the diagnosis of Wolfram syndrome was studied using a prepared standardized form.

Results  Subjects with juvenile-onset non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus attending the diabetic clinic at a tertiary care centre in north India were followed for 10 years and a diagnosis of fully developed Wolfram syndrome was confirmed in seven individuals. The series consisted of five male and two female patients with a mean age of 17.5 ± 7.34 years. Two subjects had consanguinity and none had any other family member affected. Optic atrophy was present in all, sensorineural hearing loss in 4/7, central diabetes insipidus in 4/7 and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in 2/7 subjects. The new associations found were: spastic myoclonus, short stature with pancreatic malabsorption, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, cyanotic heart disease and choledocholithiasis with cholangitis. Genetic analysis revealed mutation in exon 8 of the WFS1 gene in all the cases studied.

Conclusions  The present clinical series of Wolfram syndrome reveals a varied clinical presentation of the syndrome and some new associations.

  ShiWei Xu , Wen Yu , Shu-Yun Liu , A. Ahmed and Yu Wang
  To find out how the weather influences the winter wheat yield, the authors used the time series data from the years 1981-2009, such as rainfall and temperature. The simple linear regression model with trend was to be established to estimate the relation between yield and meteorological factors. According to the result, the temperature has positive influence except on sowing stage in October but rainfall have negative influence except during jointing stage in April. We could forecast the yield according to weather factors; based on the meteorological yield coefficients we also considered irrigation or film-covering to increase temperature so as to increase the wheat yield. This will give a theoretical basis for crop yield forecasting and the way to increase yield. In summary, this study could be used in the earlier warning for wheat yield.
  K.Y. Musa , A. Ahmed , G. Ibrahim , O.E. Ojonugwa , M. Bisalla , H. Musa and U.H. Danmalam
  Toxicity studies on the methanolic extract of Portulaca oleracea L. were carried out on mice intraperitoneally. The LD50 was calculated using the methods of Miller and Tainter (LD50, 1853.5 mg kg-1), Reed and Muench (LD50, 1871 mg kg-1) and Karber method (LD50, 1875 mg kg-1) these values placed the plant to be moderately toxic. Histopathological findings revealed that the extract has effect on the kidney, lung and liver in a dose dependent manner.
  R. A. Lal , S. Choudhury , A. Ahmed , M. Chakraborty , R. Borthakur and A. Kumar
  The mononuclear nickel(II) complex [Ni(H2slox)(H2O)3] (1) and polymeric dinuclear complexes [Ni2(slox)(A4)] {A = H2O (2), py (3), 2-pic (4), 3-pic (5) and 4-pic (6)} and the discrete binuclear complexes [Ni2(slox)(NN)3] {NN = bpy (7) and phen (8)} have been synthesized from disalicylaldehyde oxaloyldihydrazone (H4slox) in methanol. All of the complexes are nonelectrolytes. Complexes 1, 7, and 8 are paramagnetic while binuclear 2-6 possess anomalously low μeff value, indicating considerable metal-metal interaction. Discrete binuclear 7 and 8 have no interaction between the two nickel(II) ions. The anomalously low magnetic moment values in 2-6 are explained as metal-metal interaction via phenoxide bridge. Such metal-metal interactions are less in 7 and 8 due to coordination of bipyridine and phenanthroline molecules which do not allow phenoxide bridging. The dihydrazone coordinates to the metal center as a dibasic tridentate ligand in keto-enol form in staggered configuration in 1, while in the remaining complexes the dihydrazone is tetrabasic hexadentate in enol form in anticis configuration. The metal center has a tetragonally distorted octahedral stereochemistry.
  M.D. Lawal , I.G. Ameh and A. Ahmed
  Camels (Camelus dromedarius) at Sokoto abattoir livestock market were physically screened at random, for ectoparasites by macroscopic observation, grooming and scrapping of 3960 anatomical sites on 396 animals. 367 (92.7%) of the 396 camels were infested vis-à-vis 335 (91.28%) by ticks, 17 (4.63%) by flies, 13 (3.54%) by mites and 2 (0.55%) by lice. The ectoparasites identified and their relative abundance on the camels was as follows: Hyalomma sp. (48.0%), Amblyomma sp. (16.79%), Boophilus sp. (14.91%), Rhipicephalus sp. (14.71%), Musca domestica (2.48%), Hippobosca cameli (2.13%), Sarcoptes scabiei var cameli (0.44%), Haematopinus tuberculatus (0.27%), Tabanus longicorins (0.27%). Hyalomma species, which was the most prevalent species of the ectoparasites, was identified as H. dromedarii (46.9%), H. rufipes (22.9%), H. impeltatum (18.5%) and H. truncatum (11.7%). These ectoparasite fauna may have been imported across the border by traffics of camel caravan, which linked Sokoto and other sahelian countries. Although the impact of these parasites on host animals and the environment was not measured in this study, it was however, concluded that the number and species of infesting ectoparasites encountered were significant enough to pose a potential public health hazard, especially tick pestilence.
  K.A. Mir , A. Ahmed and J.A. Reshi
  In this study, a Size Biased Exponential Distribution (SBEPD) is introduced and its moments are obtained. A size biased exponential distribution; a particular case of the weighted exponential distribution, taking the weights as the variate values has been defined. The estimates of the parameters of Size Biased Exponential Distribution (SBEPD) are obtained by employing the method of moments, maximum likelihood estimator and Bayesian estimation. Also, a Bayes’ estimator of Size Biased Exponential Distribution (SBEPD) has been obtained by using non-informative and gamma prior distributions.
  K.A. Mir , A. Ahmed and J.A. Reshi
  In this study, researchers have considered a Size Biased Gamma Distribution (SBGMD), a particular case of the weighted gamma distribution, taking the weights as the variate values. Moments of the distribution are derived. Also, the estimates of the parameters of Size Biased Gamma Distribution (SBGMD) are obtained by employing different methods. A Bayes’ estimator of Size Biased Gamma Distribution (SBGMD) has also been obtained by using non-informative and gamma prior distributions.
  Mahbub-E-Sobhani , N. Haque , U. Salma and A. Ahmed
  Traditional medical science has kept the mind separate from the body. Recently people realize the effect of mind on health and psychoneuroimmunology is the new evolved science that describes the interactions between psyche and soma. In this review through a typical psycho-neuro-endocrino-immune network the effects of psychological stress (acute, brief naturalistic and chronic) and relaxation on immune modulation has been shown. From this network Corticotrophin Releasing Factor (CRF), Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH), Glucocorticoids (GC), α-endorphin and Met-enkephalin are found as important endocrine components and T cells, B cells, monocytes/macrophages, Natural Killer (NK) cells and their cytokines that is Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), Interferon Gamma (IFN-α) and interleukins such as IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 etc. are found as important immune components. Finally, it has been shown that, acute, brief naturalistic and chronic stress have different immune modulatory activities which are harmful to one’s homeostasis and relaxation can help to maintain that homeostasis.
  S.P. Ahmad , A.A. Khan and A. Ahmed
  This study is devoted to the Bayesian regression analysis. It contains an extended version of normal theory regression models which includes extreme-value, logistic and normal regression models as its particular cases. Methods proposed in this study are illustrated numerically, i.e., regression coefficient of pH on EC (Electrical Conductivity) of soil data is analyzed numerically in S-PLUS and R softwares.
  E. Noubissie , A. Ahmed , B.A. Mohammadou and M.B. Ngassoum
  The mobility of six heavy metals (Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr, Cu and Cd) in soils from market gardening lands in Ngaoundere urban area was studied. To this effect, ten samples were collected at different depths (5 samples were taken between 0 and 20 cm and 5 samples between 20-40 cm) in two different lay outs. Total, sequential and simple extractions were realized on these samples using standardized methods with Distilled Water (DW), Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) and Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid (EDTA) as solvents. Heavy metals were quantified by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). Results showed that soils from the two lay outs were highly contaminated by Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr, Cu and Cd. Sequential extractions revealed that only 17% of these heavy metals (especially Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr and Cu) could be exchanged or were linked to carbonates while 42% were in the residual forms and 29% were adsorbed to soil organic matter. With the exception of Cd which was mainly residual in the studied soils, >50% of the five other heavy metals were strongly linked to iron, manganese and aluminum oxides. Furthermore, simple extractions revealed that >60% of these heavy metals could be exchanged and are therefore bioavailable. This study revealed that market gardening in urban areas of Ngaoundere could be associated with environment and health hazards.
 
 
 
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