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Articles by A. Abdel-Maksoud
Total Records ( 4 ) for A. Abdel-Maksoud
  Z. Wang , S. Cerrate , C. Coto , F. Yan , F.P. Costa , A. Abdel-Maksoud and P.W. Waldroup
  A feeding trial was conducted in various levels of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were fed in broiler diets formulated to be either isocaloric using metabolizable energy levels similar to current U.S. poultry industry levels or formulated to contain optimum density commensurate with 1% supplemental poultry oil. In each diet type, levels of 0, 15 and 30% DDGS were incorporated. This resulted in six dietary treatments with four pens of 25 males per treatment. Diets were developed for starter (0-14 d), grower (15-28 days) and finisher periods (29-42 days) and were formulated to meet digestible amino acid specifications of a major poultry breeder, adjusted to the energy content of the diet. Bulk density and pellet quality of mixed feeds were determined. At the end of the study, five representative birds per pen were processed for dressing percentage and parts yield determination. Pellet quality decreased with increasing level of DDGS used. There was little difference in pellet quality between diets with 0 or 15% DDGS but quality deteriorated severely in diets with 30% DDGS. Diets formulated to optimum energy had better pellet quality due to lower supplemental poultry oil. Over the 42 days study, birds fed diets with 30% DDGS had significantly lower body weight and significantly higher feed conversion than did birds fed the control diet with no DDGS. Birds fed diets with 15% DDGS did not differ significantly in 42 days BW or feed conversion from birds fed the control diet with no DDGS nor with the birds fed diets with 30% DDGS. It appeared that a portion of the reduced performance associated with the higher level of DDGS might have been associated with the reduced pellet quality and the bulk density of the diet, rather than any nutritional deficiency. Therefore, approaches to feed manufacturing that enhance pellet quality may enhance usage of higher levels of DDGS in broiler diets.
  C. Coto, Z. Wang , S. Cerrate , F. Perazzo , A. Abdel-Maksoud , F. Yan and P.W. Waldroup
  The effect of different dietary levels of amino acids, calcium and phosphorus as influenced by phytase supplementation was evaluated in broiler chickens. The experimental design consisted of a 3 x 4 x 2 factorial arrangement with three levels of digestible lysine (1.10, 1.30 and 1.50%), four levels of calcium (0.50, 0.70, 0.90 and 1.1%) and diets containing 0.35% AP with and without phytase for a total of 24 treatments. Remaining amino acids levels were adjusted with respect to the digestible lysine level using the ideal ratios suggested by Rostagno et al. (2005). Each experimental diet was fed to six replicates pens of five male chickens during 21 days. Body weight, FCR, feed intake, bone development (TD), bone mineralization (toe ash), and phosphorus excretion as Total Phosphorus in excreta (TP), Water Soluble Phosphorus in excreta (WSP) and the WSP/TP ratio were evaluated. Birds fed lysine levels higher than 1.1% expressed better body weight in a non-linear trend. Feed intake was decreased by increasing the lysine level while feed conversion improved as lysine level increased. Increasing levels of Ca decreased feed intake, the 1.1% Ca level was detrimental for body weight. Phytase supplementation was effective to alleviate widened-suboptimal Ca:P ratios in terms of feed intake and body weight. The 1.5 % digestible lysine level improved toe ash; however, high levels of lysine were also related to a higher incidence of TD. Ca levels equal or greater than the NRC (1994) recommendation were adequate for optimum bone mineralization. Increasing levels of Ca reduced the incidence and severity of TD. Moreover, Ca levels greater than those suggested by NRC (1994) were adequate to assimilate higher lysine levels without compromising bone development. The higher lysine levels fed reduced TP in excreta but increased the WSP/TP ratio. The supplementation of phytase increased WSP and the WSP/TP ratio. Increasing levels of Ca reduced WSP and the WSP/TP ratio in excreta. Furthermore, high levels of Ca were also effective to overcome the increased WSP and WSP/TP ratio caused by the supplementation of phytase.
  A. Abdel-Maksoud , F. Yan , S. Cerrate , C. Coto , Z. Wang and P.W. Waldroup
  There is still a debate about the possible difference in the relative bioefficacy between DL-Met and DL-HMB as a source of methionine activity for broilers. This experiment was conducted to determine if the interaction between Arg and Met is influenced by methionine sources (MetS) and methionine level (MetL) in diets for male broilers. A 3 x 2 x 5 factorial arrangement experimental design included three total Arg levels (1.25, 1.35 and 1.45), two Met sources (DL-Met and DL-HMB) and five equimolar levels of supplemental Met (0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20%) for a total of 30 treatments. Each treatment was fed to 6 replicate pens of 6 male broilers in electrically heated battery brooders from 1-18 days of age. Chickens fed the 1.25% Arg level showed a significantly higher body weight compared to other treatment groups. The FCR and FE were significantly affected by the different levels of Arg in diets. However, FI was not significantly affected by dietary Arg levels. There was no interaction between Arg-MetS and Arg-MetL or any three-way interactions. There was no significant difference between the two Met sources on the performance of broilers. Body weight and FI were not significantly affected by MetL, but an increase of MetL in basal diet significantly improved FCR and FE. The interaction between MetS and MetL had no significant effect on the performance of broilers. These results indicate that the 1.25% total Arg level was sufficient to provide optimum body weight in broiler starter diets. Both MetS had the same relative effectiveness on the performance of broilers when supplemented with equimolar amounts in diets.
  A. Abdel-Maksoud , F. Yan , S. Cerrate , C. Coto , Z. Wang and P.W. Waldroup
  The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Crude Protein (CP), lysine and amino acid balance in male broiler diets on performance (weight gain and feed conversion, feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio). Five test diet series were used: 1) the 23% CP diet; 2) the 21% CP diet; 3) the 21% CP diet plus additional amino acids (21.68% total CP) to provide at least as much of the essential amino acids as present in the 23% CP diet; 4) the 19% CP diet and 5) the 19% CP diet plus additional amino acids (20.31% total CP) to provide at least as much of the essential amino acids as present in the 23% CP diet. For each of the five test diets series, additional Lys was added to provide total Lys levels of 1.10, 1.15, 1.20, 1.25, 1.30, 1.35 and 1.40%. This resulted in a total of 35 final experimental treatments in a 5 x 7 factorial arrangement. Each treatment was fed to 6 replicate pens of 6 male broilers in electrically heated battery brooders from 1-18 days of age. Birds fed the low-protein diets (21%) supplemented with EAAs (21.68% total CP) showed significantly the highest BW and best FCR and FE. There were no significant differences in BW between birds fed control diet (23%) and 19% CP or 19% plus EAAs (20.31% total CP) and 21% CP. FC and PER were significantly affected by dietary protein levels. FCR and FE were significantly improved and BW increased significantly by increasing dietary lysine levels up to 1.25%. An interactions of CP with or without EAAs with dietary lysine level were significant for BW. FCR, FE, FC and PER not significantly influenced by interaction. Thus, our results suggest that maximum body weight could be obtained with a 21% low-CP plus EAA supplementation which was the same as that of the chicks fed high protein diet (23% CP). Optimum dietary lysine level for performance was affected by dietary protein level and amino acid balance.
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