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Articles by A. S Hall
Total Records ( 4 ) for A. S Hall
  K. M Bailey , S. P. R Romaine , B. M Jackson , A. J Farrin , M Efthymiou , J. H Barth , J Copeland , T McCormack , A Whitehead , M. D Flather , N. J Samani , J Nixon , A. S Hall , A. J Balmforth and on behalf of the SPACE ROCKET Trial Group
  Background—

Pharmacogenetics aims to maximize benefits and minimize risks of drug treatment. Our objectives were to examine the influence of common variants of hepatic metabolism and transporter genes on the lipid-lowering response to statin therapy.

Methods and Results—

The Genetic Effects On STATins (GEOSTAT-1) Study was a genetic substudy of Secondary Prevention of Acute Coronary Events—Reduction of Cholesterol to Key European Targets (SPACE ROCKET) (a randomized, controlled trial comparing 40 mg of simvastatin and 10 mg of rosuvastatin) that recruited 601 patients after myocardial infarction. We genotyped the following functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes coding for the cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic enzymes, CYP2C9*2 (430C>T), CYP2C9*3 (1075A>C), CYP2C19*2 (681G>A), CYP3A5*1 (6986A>G), and hepatic influx and efflux transporters SLCO1B1 (521T>C) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; 421C>A). We assessed 3-month LDL cholesterol levels and the proportion of patients reaching the current LDL cholesterol target of <70 mg/dL (<1.81 mmol/L). An enhanced response to rosuvastatin was seen for patients with variant genotypes of either CYP3A5 (P=0.006) or BCRP (P=0.010). Furthermore, multivariate logistic-regression analysis revealed that patients with at least 1 variant CYP3A5 and/or BCRP allele (n=186) were more likely to achieve the LDL cholesterol target (odds ratio: 2.289; 95% CI: 1.157, 4.527; P=0.017; rosuvastatin 54.0% to target vs simvastatin 33.7%). There were no differences for patients with variants of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, or SLCO1B1 in comparison with their respective wild types, nor were differential effects on statin response seen for patients with the most common genotypes for CYP3A5 and BCRP (n=415; odds ratio: 1.207; 95% CI: 0.768, 1.899; P=0.415).

Conclusion—

The LDL cholesterol target was achieved more frequently for the 1 in 3 patients with CYP3A5 and/or BCRP variant genotypes when prescribed rosuvastatin 10 mg, compared with simvastatin 40 mg.

Clinical Trial Registration—

URL: http://isrctn.org. Unique identifier: ISRCTN 89508434.

  D Teupser , R Baber , U Ceglarek , M Scholz , T Illig , C Gieger , L. M Holdt , A Leichtle , K. H Greiser , D Huster , P Linsel Nitschke , A Schafer , P. S Braund , L Tiret , K Stark , D Raaz Schrauder , G. M Fiedler , W Wilfert , F Beutner , S Gielen , A Grosshennig , I. R Konig , P Lichtner , I. M Heid , A Kluttig , N. E El Mokhtari , D Rubin , A. B Ekici , A Reis , C. D Garlichs , A. S Hall , G Matthes , C Wittekind , C Hengstenberg , F Cambien , S Schreiber , K Werdan , T Meitinger , M Loeffler , N. J Samani , J Erdmann , H. E Wichmann , H Schunkert and J. Thiery
  Background—

Phytosterols are plant-derived sterols that are taken up from food and can serve as biomarkers of cholesterol uptake. Serum levels are under tight genetic control. We used a genomic approach to study the molecular regulation of serum phytosterol levels and potential links to coronary artery disease (CAD).

Methods and Results—

A genome-wide association study for serum phytosterols (campesterol, sitosterol, brassicasterol) was conducted in a population-based sample from KORA (Cooperative Research in the Region of Augsburg) (n=1495) with subsequent replication in 2 additional samples (n=1157 and n=1760). Replicated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for association with premature CAD in a metaanalysis of 11 different samples comprising 13 764 CAD cases and 13 630 healthy controls. Genetic variants in the ATP-binding hemitransporter ABCG8 and at the blood group ABO locus were significantly associated with serum phytosterols. Effects in ABCG8 were independently related to SNPs rs4245791 and rs41360247 (combined P=1.6x10–50 and 6.2x10–25, respectively; n=4412). Serum campesterol was elevated 12% for each rs4245791 T-allele. The same allele was associated with 40% decreased hepatic ABCG8 mRNA expression (P=0.009). Effects at the ABO locus were related to SNP rs657152 (combined P=9.4x10–13). Alleles of ABCG8 and ABO associated with elevated phytosterol levels displayed significant associations with increased CAD risk (rs4245791 odds ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.14; P=2.2x10–6; rs657152 odds ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.19; P=9.4x10–6), whereas alleles at ABCG8 associated with reduced phytosterol levels were associated with reduced CAD risk (rs41360247 odds ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.91; P=1.3x10–5).

Conclusion—

Common variants in ABCG8 and ABO are strongly associated with serum phytosterol levels and show concordant and previously unknown associations with CAD.

  M Preuss , I. R Konig , J. R Thompson , J Erdmann , D Absher , T. L Assimes , S Blankenberg , E Boerwinkle , L Chen , L. A Cupples , A. S Hall , E Halperin , C Hengstenberg , H Holm , R Laaksonen , M Li , W Marz , R McPherson , K Musunuru , C. P Nelson , M Susan Burnett , S. E Epstein , C. J O'Donnell , T Quertermous , D. J Rader , R Roberts , A Schillert , K Stefansson , A. F. R Stewart , G Thorleifsson , B. F Voight , G. A Wells , A Ziegler , S Kathiresan , M. P Reilly , N. J Samani , H Schunkert and on behalf of the CARDIoGRAM Consortium
  Background—

Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of myocardial infarction (MI) and other forms of coronary artery disease (CAD) have led to the discovery of at least 13 genetic loci. In addition to the effect size, power to detect associations is largely driven by sample size. Therefore, to maximize the chance of finding novel susceptibility loci for CAD and MI, the Coronary ARtery DIsease Genome-wide Replication And Meta-analysis (CARDIoGRAM) consortium was formed.

Methods and Results—

CARDIoGRAM combines data from all published and several unpublished GWAS in individuals with European ancestry; includes >22 000 cases with CAD, MI, or both and >60 000 controls; and unifies samples from the Atherosclerotic Disease VAscular functioN and genetiC Epidemiology study, CADomics, Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology, deCODE, the German Myocardial Infarction Family Studies I, II, and III, Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Heath Study/AtheroRemo, MedStar, Myocardial Infarction Genetics Consortium, Ottawa Heart Genomics Study, PennCath, and the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Genotyping was carried out on Affymetrix or Illumina platforms followed by imputation of genotypes in most studies. On average, 2.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms were generated per study. The results from each study are combined using meta-analysis. As proof of principle, we meta-analyzed risk variants at 9p21 and found that rs1333049 confers a 29% increase in risk for MI per copy (P=2x10–20).

Conclusion—

CARDIoGRAM is poised to contribute to our understanding of the role of common genetic variation on risk for CAD and MI.

  J. H Barth , B. M Jackson , A. J Farrin , M Efthymiou , G Worthy , J Copeland , K. M Bailey , S. P. R Romaine , A. J Balmforth , T McCormack , A Whitehead , M. D Flather , J Nixon , A. S Hall and on behalf of the SPACE ROCKET Trial Group
  BACKGROUND:

It has long been an accepted belief that serum cholesterol significantly falls after myocardial infarction and that a return to pre-event levels takes approximately 3 months. The magnitude and clinical significance of this fall has recently been challenged.

METHODS:

In the Secondary Prevention of Acute Coronary Events—Reduction Of Cholesterol to Key European Targets (SPACE ROCKET) trial, we measured serum lipids of individuals on day 1 and between days 2 and 4 after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Second, we performed a thorough literature review and compared all studies reporting data on absolute changes in lipids immediately after AMI, using weighted means.

RESULTS:

Of 1263 SPACE ROCKET participants, 128 had paired lipid measurements where both samples had been measured using identical methods at baseline and on days 2–4 after AMI. The mean lowering in total cholesterol between day 1 and day 2–4 was 0.71 mmol/L (95% CI 0.58–0.84; P < 0.0001) and in triglycerides was 0.10 mmol/L (–0.14–0.33; P = 0.405). A total of 25 papers showing absolute lipid changes post-AMI were identified. The combined data demonstrated a mean fall in total cholesterol of 9% to 11% from baseline over days 3–14 post-AMI, whereas for triglycerides, there was a rise of 18% from baseline to between day 9 and 12 weeks.

CONCLUSIONS:

After a secondary analysis of SPACE ROCKET data and a comparison of previously published data, we report a 10% fall in total cholesterol after AMI—a difference that is of high clinical significance. Consequently, measurement of serum lipids in patients with AMI should be performed within the first hours after presentation.

 
 
 
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