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Articles by A. R Folsom
Total Records ( 6 ) for A. R Folsom
  J Yeboah , A. R Folsom , G. L Burke , C Johnson , J. F Polak , W Post , J. A Lima , J. R Crouse and D. M. Herrington

Background— Although brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) predicts recurrent cardiovascular events, its predictive value for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in adults free of CVD is not well established. We assessed the predictive value of FMD for incident CVD events in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

Methods and Results— Brachial artery FMD was measured in a nested case-cohort sample of 3026 of 6814 subjects (mean±SD age, 61.2±9.9 years) in MESA, a population-based cohort study of adults free of clinical CVD at baseline recruited at 6 clinic sites in the United States. The sample included 50.2% female, 34.3% white, 19.7% Chinese, 20.8% black, and 25.1% Hispanic subjects. Probability-weighted Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to examine the association between FMD and 5 years of adjudicated incident CVD events, including incident myocardial infarction, definite angina, coronary revascularization (coronary artery bypass grafting, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, or other revascularization), stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest, and CVD death. Mean (SD) FMD of the cohort was 4.4% (2.8). In probability-weighted Cox models, FMD/unit SD was significantly associated with incident cardiovascular events in the univariate model (adjusted for age and sex) (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.65 to 0.97; P=0.01), after adjustment for the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.62 to 0.97; P=0.025), and in the multivariable model (hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.71 to 0.99; P=0.04) after adjustment for age, sex, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking status, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, heart rate, statin use, and blood pressure medication use. The c statistic (area under the curve) values of FMD, FRS, and FRS+FMD were 0.65, 0.74, and 0.74, respectively. Compared with the FRS alone, the addition of FMD to the FRS net correctly reclassifies 52% of subjects with no incident CVD event but net incorrectly reclassifies 23% of subjects with an incident CVD event, an overall net correct reclassification of 29% (P<0.001).

Conclusions— Brachial FMD is a predictor of incident cardiovascular events in population-based adults. Even though the addition of FMD to the FRS did not improve discrimination of subjects at risk of CVD events in receiver operating characteristic analysis, it improved the classification of subjects as low, intermediate, and high CVD risk compared with the FRS.

  N. L Smith , M. H Chen , A Dehghan , D. P Strachan , S Basu , N Soranzo , C Hayward , I Rudan , M Sabater Lleal , J. C Bis , M. P. M de Maat , A Rumley , X Kong , Q Yang , F. M. K Williams , V Vitart , H Campbell , A Malarstig , K. L Wiggins , C. M Van Duijn , W. L McArdle , J. S Pankow , A. D Johnson , A Silveira , B McKnight , A. G Uitterlinden , Aleksic Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium; , J. B Meigs , A Peters , W Koenig , M Cushman , S Kathiresan , J. I Rotter , E. G Bovill , A Hofman , E Boerwinkle , G. H Tofler , J. F Peden , B. M Psaty , F Leebeek , A. R Folsom , M. G Larson , T. D Spector , A. F Wright , J. F Wilson , A Hamsten , T Lumley , J. C. M Witteman , W Tang and C. J. O'Donnell

Background— Plasma levels of coagulation factors VII (FVII), VIII (FVIII), and von Willebrand factor (vWF) influence risk of hemorrhage and thrombosis. We conducted genome-wide association studies to identify new loci associated with plasma levels.

Methods and Results— The setting of the study included 5 community-based studies for discovery comprising 23 608 European-ancestry participants: Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities Study, Cardiovascular Health Study, British 1958 Birth Cohort, Framingham Heart Study, and Rotterdam Study. All subjects had genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) scans and at least 1 phenotype measured: FVII activity/antigen, FVIII activity, and vWF antigen. Each study used its genotype data to impute to HapMap SNPs and independently conducted association analyses of hemostasis measures using an additive genetic model. Study findings were combined by meta-analysis. Replication was conducted in 7604 participants not in the discovery cohort. For FVII, 305 SNPs exceeded the genome-wide significance threshold of 5.0x10–8 and comprised 5 loci on 5 chromosomes: 2p23 (smallest P value 6.2x10–24), 4q25 (3.6x10–12), 11q12 (2.0x10–10), 13q34 (9.0x10–259), and 20q11.2 (5.7x10–37). Loci were within or near genes, including 4 new candidate genes and F7 (13q34). For vWF, 400 SNPs exceeded the threshold and marked 8 loci on 6 chromosomes: 6q24 (1.2x10–22), 8p21 (1.3x10–16), 9q34 (<5.0x10–324), 12p13 (1.7x10–32), 12q23 (7.3x10–10), 12q24.3 (3.8x10–11), 14q32 (2.3x10–10), and 19p13.2 (1.3x10–9). All loci were within genes, including 6 new candidate genes, as well as ABO (9q34) and VWF (12p13). For FVIII, 5 loci were identified and overlapped vWF findings. Nine of the 10 new findings were replicated.

Conclusions— New genetic associations were discovered outside previously known biological pathways and may point to novel prevention and treatment targets of hemostasis disorders.

  A Brautbar , C. M Ballantyne , K Lawson , V Nambi , L Chambless , A. R Folsom , J. T Willerson and E. Boerwinkle

Background— A single-nucleotide polymorphism on chromosome 9p21, rs10757274 (9p21 allele), has been shown to predict coronary heart disease (CHD) in whites. We evaluated whether adding the 9p21 allele to traditional risk factors (RFs) improved CHD risk prediction in whites from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study and whether changes in risk prediction would modify lipid therapy recommendations.

Methods and Results— Whites (n=9998) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study for whom the 9p21 genotype and traditional RF information was available were included. Using Cox proportional hazards models, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Cardiovascular Risk Score, which is based on traditional RFs, was determined. A total of 1349 individuals (13.5%) developed incident CHD events during a period of 14.6 years. Adding the 9p21 allele to traditional RFs was associated with a hazard ratio of incident CHD of 1.2 per allele (P<0.000003) and a significant increase in the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic from 0.782 to 0.786 (95% CI, 0.001, 0.007). The 9p21 allele’s greatest influence to the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Cardiovascular Risk Score was observed in the intermediate-low (>5% to ≤10% 10-year CHD risk) and intermediate-high (>10% to ≤20% 10-year CHD risk) categories, with 12.1% and 12.6% reclassified, respectively. This may impact therapy because 90% of these reclassified individuals had low-density lipoprotein cholesterol >100 mg/dL.

Conclusion— Adding the 9p21 allele to traditional RFs in whites in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study modestly improved CHD risk prediction in the intermediate categories.

  A. C Morrison , J. F Felix , L. A Cupples , N. L Glazer , L. R Loehr , A Dehghan , S Demissie , J. C Bis , W. D Rosamond , Y. S Aulchenko , Y. A Wang , T Haritunians , A. R Folsom , F Rivadeneira , E. J Benjamin , T Lumley , D Couper , B. H Stricker , C. J O'Donnell , K. M Rice , P. P Chang , A Hofman , D Levy , J. I Rotter , E. R Fox , A. G Uitterlinden , T. J Wang , B. M Psaty , J. T Willerson , C. M van Duijn , E Boerwinkle , J. C. M Witteman , R. S Vasan and N. L. Smith

Prognosis and survival are significant concerns for individuals with heart failure (HF). To better understand the pathophysiology of HF prognosis, the association between 2 366 858 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and all-cause mortality was evaluated among individuals with incident HF from 4 community-based prospective cohorts: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the Rotterdam Study.

Methods and Results—

Participants were 2526 individuals of European ancestry and 466 individuals of African ancestry who experienced an incident HF event during follow-up in the respective cohorts. Within each study, the association between genetic variants and time to mortality among individuals with HF was assessed by Cox proportional hazards models that included adjustment for sex and age at the time of the HF event. Prospective fixed-effect meta-analyses were conducted for the 4 study populations of European ancestry (N=1645 deaths) and for the 2 populations of African ancestry (N=281 deaths). Genome-wide significance was set at P=5.0x10–7. Meta-analytic findings among individuals of European ancestry revealed 1 genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 3p22 in an intron of CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing 7 (CMTM7, P=3.2x10–7). Eight additional loci in individuals of European ancestry and 4 loci in individuals of African ancestry were identified by high-signal SNPs (P<1.0x10–5) but did not meet genome-wide significance.


This study identified a novel locus associated with all-cause mortality among individuals of European ancestry with HF. This finding warrants additional investigation, including replication, in other studies of HF.

  N. L Smith , J. F Felix , A. C Morrison , S Demissie , N. L Glazer , L. R Loehr , L. A Cupples , A Dehghan , T Lumley , W. D Rosamond , W Lieb , F Rivadeneira , J. C Bis , A. R Folsom , E Benjamin , Y. S Aulchenko , T Haritunians , D Couper , J Murabito , Y. A Wang , B. H Stricker , J. S Gottdiener , P. P Chang , T. J Wang , K. M Rice , A Hofman , S. R Heckbert , E. R Fox , C. J O'Donnell , A. G Uitterlinden , J. I Rotter , J. T Willerson , D Levy , C. M van Duijn , B. M Psaty , J. C. M Witteman , E Boerwinkle and R. S. Vasan

Although genetic factors contribute to the onset of heart failure (HF), no large-scale genome-wide investigation of HF risk has been published to date. We have investigated the association of 2 478 304 single-nucleotide polymorphisms with incident HF by meta-analyzing data from 4 community-based prospective cohorts: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the Rotterdam Study.

Methods and Results—

Eligible participants for these analyses were of European or African ancestry and free of clinical HF at baseline. Each study independently conducted genome-wide scans and imputed data to the 2.5 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms in HapMap. Within each study, Cox proportional hazards regression models provided age- and sex-adjusted estimates of the association between each variant and time to incident HF. Fixed-effect meta-analyses combined results for each single-nucleotide polymorphism from the 4 cohorts to produce an overall association estimate and P value. A genome-wide significance P value threshold was set a priori at 5.0x10–7. During a mean follow-up of 11.5 years, 2526 incident HF events (12%) occurred in 20 926 European-ancestry participants. The meta-analysis identified a genome-wide significant locus at chromosomal position 15q22 (1.4x10–8), which was 58.8 kb from USP3. Among 2895 African-ancestry participants, 466 incident HF events (16%) occurred during a mean follow-up of 13.7 years. One genome-wide significant locus was identified at 12q14 (6.7x10–8), which was 6.3 kb from LRIG3.


We identified 2 loci that were associated with incident HF and exceeded genome-wide significance. The findings merit replication in other community-based settings of incident HF.

  K. A Volcik , D Catellier , A. R Folsom , N Matijevic , B Wasserman and E. Boerwinkle

Background: P-selectin (SELP) and its ligand, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (SELPLG), play key roles in both the inflammatory response and the atherosclerotic process. Previous studies have shown genetic variation in the SELP gene [selectin P (granule membrane protein 140kDa, antigen CD62)] to be associated with plasma SELP concentrations; however, the major biological function of SELP (and SELPLG) is at the cell surface. We therefore investigated the association of SELP polymorphisms with platelet SELP measures and polymorphisms in the SELPLG gene (selectin P ligand) with lymphocyte, granulocyte, and monocyte SELPLG measures among 1870 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Carotid MRI Study.

Methods: Whole-blood flow cytometry was used to analyze leukocyte and platelet markers in the ARIC Carotid MRI Study. The allele frequencies for the SELP and SELPLG polymorphisms of whites and African Americans were markedly different; therefore, all analyses were race specific.

Results: SELP T715P was significantly associated with lower values for platelet SELP measures in whites (P = 0.0001), whereas SELP N562D was significantly associated with higher values for SELP measures in African Americans (P = 0.02). SELPLG M62I was significantly associated with lower granulocyte and monocyte SELPLG measures in African Americans (P = 0.003 and P = 0.0002, respectively) and with lower lymphocyte SELPLG measures in whites (P = 0.01).

Conclusions: Specific SELP and SELPLG polymorphisms were associated with cell surface measures of SELP and SELPLG in both whites and African Americans in the ARIC Carotid MRI Study. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the association of SELP and SELPLG genetic variation with measures of cell surface SELP and SELPLG.

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