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Articles by A. P Maggioni
Total Records ( 4 ) for A. P Maggioni
  W. C Levy , K. L Lee , A. S Hellkamp , J. E Poole , D Mozaffarian , D. T Linker , A. P Maggioni , I Anand , P. A Poole Wilson , D. P Fishbein , G Johnson , J Anderson , D. B Mark and G. H. Bardy

Background— Although implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy reduces mortality in moderately symptomatic heart failure patients with an ejection fraction ≤35%, many such patients do not require ICD shocks over long-term follow-up.

Methods and Results— Using a modification of a previously validated risk prediction model based on routine clinical variables, we examined the relationship between baseline predicted mortality risk and the relative and absolute survival benefits of ICD treatment in the primary prevention Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial (SCD-HeFT). In the placebo arm, predicted 4-year mortality grouped into 5 equal-sized risk groups varied from 12% to 50% (c statistic=0.71), whereas the proportion of SCD in those same risk groups decreased from 52% to 24% of all deaths. ICD treatment decreased relative risk of SCD by 88% in the lowest-risk group versus 24% in the highest-risk group (P=0.009 for interaction) and decreased relative risk of total mortality by 54% in the lowest-risk group versus no benefit (2%) in the highest-risk group (P=0.014 for interaction). Absolute 4-year mortality reductions were 6.6%, 8.8%, 10.6%, 14.0%, and –4.9% across risk quintiles. In highest-risk patients (predicted annual mortality >20%), no benefit of ICD treatment was seen. Projected over each patient’s predicted lifespan, ICD treatment added 6.3, 4.1, 3.0, 1.9, and 0.2 additional years of life in the lowest- to highest-risk groups, respectively.

Conclusions— A clinical risk prediction model identified subsets of moderately symptomatic heart failure patients in SCD-HeFT in whom single-lead ICD therapy was of no benefit and other subsets in which benefit was substantial.

  E. F Lewis , S. D Solomon , K. A Jablonski , M. M Rice , F Clemenza , J Hsia , A. P Maggioni , M Zabalgoitia , T Huynh , T. E Cuddy , B. J Gersh , J Rouleau , E Braunwald , M. A Pfeffer and on behalf of the PEACE Investigators

Background— Heart failure (HF) is a disease commonly associated with coronary artery disease. Most risk models for HF development have focused on patients with acute myocardial infarction. The Prevention of Events with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition population enabled the development of a risk model to predict HF in patients with stable coronary artery disease and preserved ejection fraction.

Methods and Results— In the 8290, Prevention of Events with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition patients without preexisting HF, new-onset HF hospitalizations, and fatal HF were assessed over a median follow-up of 4.8 years. Covariates were evaluated and maintained in the Cox regression multivariable model using backward selection if P<0.05. A risk score was developed and converted to an integer-based scoring system. Among the Prevention of Events with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition population (age, 64±8; female, 18%; prior myocardial infarction, 55%), there were 268 cases of fatal and nonfatal HF. Twelve characteristics were associated with increased risk of HF along with several baseline medications, including older age, history of hypertension, and diabetes. Randomization to trandolapril independently reduced the risk of HF. There was no interaction between trandolapril treatment and other risk factors for HF. The risk score (range, 0 to 21) demonstrated excellent discriminatory power (c-statistic 0.80). Risk of HF ranged from 1.75% in patients with a risk score of 0% to 33% in patients with risk score ≥16.

Conclusion— Among patients with stable coronary artery disease and preserved ejection fraction, traditional and newer factors were independently associated with increased risk of HF. Trandolopril decreased the risk of HF in these patients with preserved ejection fraction.

  S Masson , R Latini , V Milani , L Moretti , M. G Rossi , E Carbonieri , A Frisinghelli , C Minneci , M Valisi , A. P Maggioni , R Marchioli , G Tognoni , L Tavazzi and on behalf of the GISSI HF Investigators

Background— Increased urinary excretion of albumin is an early sign of kidney damage and a risk factor for progressive cardiovascular and renal diseases and heart failure. There is, however, only limited information on the prevalence and prognostic role of urinary albumin excretion in patients with established chronic heart failure.

Methods and Results— A total of 2131 patients enrolled in 76 sites participating in the GISSI-Heart Failure trial provided a first morning spot sample of urine at any of the clinical visits scheduled in the trial to calculate the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. The relation between log-transformed urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio and all-cause mortality (428 deaths, time from urine collection to event or censoring) was evaluated with Cox multivariable models adjusted for all significant risk factors at the time of urine collection, in the study population, and in patients without diabetes or hypertension. Almost 75% of the patients had normal urinary albumin excretion, but 19.9% had microalbuminuria (30 to 299 mg/g creatinine) and 5.4% had overt albuminuria (≥300 mg/g). There was a progressive, significant increase in the adjusted rate of mortality in the study population (hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.18 per 1-U increase of log(urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio), P=0.0002) and in the subgroup of patients without diabetes or hypertension. Randomized treatments (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids or rosuvastatin) had no major impact on albumin excretion.

Conclusions— Independently of diabetes, hypertension, or renal function, elevated albumin excretion is a powerful prognostic marker in patients with chronic heart failure.

  C Berry , K. S Pieper , H. D White , S. D Solomon , F Van de Werf , E. J Velazquez , A. P Maggioni , R. M Califf , M. A Pfeffer and J. J.V. McMurray

The number of patients presenting with an acute myocardial infarction (MI) and prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is increasing. We compared the baseline characteristics, treatment, and clinical outcomes of patients with and without prior CABG in the VALIANT trial.

Methods and results

Of the 14 703 patients with heart failure (HF), left ventricular systolic dysfunction, or both enrolled in VALIANT, 1026 (7%) had prior CABG. Prior CABG patients were older [mean age (SD): 67 (10) vs. 65 (12) years; P < 0.0001], had more comorbidity, and more frequent non-Q wave MI (66 vs. 30%; P < 0.0001). At hospital presentation, prior CABG patients received less aspirin (82 vs. 90%; P < 0.0001) and thrombolysis (21 vs. 36%; P < 0.0001), but had a similar rate of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (14 vs. 15%; P = 0.2). Prior CABG patients were more likely to experience the composite outcome of cardiovascular death, MI, HF, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or stroke; 3 year Kaplan–Meier rate, 64 vs. 39% (adjusted hazard ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval 1.17–1.43; P < 0.0001).


Patients with prior CABG had a worse clinical profile and experienced more fatal and non-fatal outcomes. Greater recognition is necessary for these high-risk patients including optimization of evidence-based secondary preventive therapy.

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