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Articles by A. P Jones
Total Records ( 5 ) for A. P Jones
  A. K Smith , J. C Edgar , M Huang , B. Y Lu , R. J Thoma , F. M Hanlon , G McHaffie , A. P Jones , R. D Paz , G. A Miller and J. M. Canive
  Objective:

Abnormal 50- and 100-msec event-related brain activity derived from paired-click procedures are well established in schizophrenia. There is little agreement on whether group differences in the ratio score, i.e., the ratio of EEG amplitude after the second stimulus (S2) to the amplitude after the first stimulus (S1), refiect an encoding or gating abnormality. In addition, the functional implications remain unclear. In the present study, EEG and magnetoencephalography (MEG) were used to examine paired-click measures and cognitive correlates of paired-click activity.

Method:

EEG and whole-cortex MEG data were acquired during the standard paired-click paradigm in 73 comparison subjects and 79 schizophrenia patients. Paired-click ratio scores were obtained at 50 msec (P50 evoked potential at Cz, M50 at left and right superior temporal gyrus [STG]) and 100 msec (N100 at Cz, M100 at left and right STG). A cognitive battery assessing attention, working memory, and long-delay memory was administered. IQ was also estimated.

Results:

Groups differed on ratio score and amplitude of S1 response. Ratio scores at 50 msec and 100 msec and S1 amplitude predicted variance in attention (primarily S1 amplitude), working memory, and long-delay memory. The attention findings remained after removal of variance associated with IQ.

Conclusions:

Associations between paired-click measures and cognitive performance in patients support 50-msec and 100-msec ratio and amplitude scores as clinically significant biomarkers of schizophrenia. In general, cognitive performance was better predicted by the ability to encode auditory information than the ability to filter redundant information.

  F. V Rijsdijsk , E Viding , S De Brito , M Forgiarini , A Mechelli , A. P Jones and E. McCrory
 

Context  Genetic vulnerability to psychopathic traits is likely to also manifest at the neural level. We have recently reported increased gray matter concentration in several brain areas in boys with psychopathic traits.

Objective  To explore whether these gray matter concentration differences can be regarded as endophenotypes for psychopathic traits by (1) assessing their heritability and (2) examining the etiology of the co-occurrence of psychopathic traits and increased gray matter concentration.

Design  Community twin sample.

Setting  On-campus neuroimaging facility.

Patients or Other Participants  One hundred twenty-three male twins (56 monozygotic and 67 dizygotic individuals; mean age 11.55 years; range, 10-13 years).

Main Outcome Measures  We analyzed structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Voxel-based morphometry analyses were used to obtain gray matter concentration values that were analyzed in a biometrical genetic twin model.

Results  Left posterior cingulate and right dorsal anterior cingulate gray matter concentrations were found to be the strongest endophenotype markers, with heritability estimates of 46% and 37%, respectively, and common genes explaining the phenotypic relationship between these regions and psychopathic traits. No significant heritabilities were found for several regions, including the right orbitofrontal cortex and insula.

Conclusions  These findings suggest that structural endophenotypes, in the form of variations in gray matter concentration, reflect genetic vulnerability for psychopathic traits. Specifically, gray matter concentration in the left posterior cingulate and right dorsal anterior cingulate, brain areas implicated in empathy, moral processing, and introspection, are potential candidate endophenotypes for psychopathic traits.

  S. A De Brito , S Hodgins , E. J.P Mccrory , A Mechelli , M Wilke , A. P Jones and E. Viding
 

A series of neuroimaging studies have reported structural differences in several subcortical and frontal systems in individuals with stable antisocial behavior (sASB). Specifically, differences have been observed in the prefrontal and temporal cortices (e.g., amygdala and hippocampus). However, the sASB population is typically characterized by co-occurring hyperactivity— inattention symptoms and low cognitive ability. These nuisance variables are likely to complicate the interpretation of findings regarding structural differences associated with sASB. The way in which each study deals with these variables influences the conclusions that can be drawn about the brain structure and function of children and adults with sASB. This article briefly reviews the extant literature in this field before considering two approaches that may be used to deal with comorbidities conceptualized as nuisance variables--namely, the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and the matched-group design. Then, the authors illustrate, with their own data, checks that may be performed to ensure the validity of results using ANCOVA.

  A. P Jones , H Larsson , A Ronald , F Rijsdijk , P Busfield , A Mcmillan , R Plomin and E. Viding
 

Some behavioural overlap exists between psychopathic tendencies and autistic traits, and both phenotypes are thought to be associated with problems in empathy. However, the broad behavioural profiles and the cognitive-affective deficits associated with the two conditions are at least partly separable. The main aim of this study was to assess the extent to which the aetiology of psychopathic tendencies is independent of autistic traits. A secondary aim was to study the aetiology of emotion attribution ability and its association with psychopathic tendencies and autistic traits. Based on data from a sample of 642 twin pairs, the genetic and nonshared environmental influences related to psychopathic tendencies were largely unique to each phenotype. Common environmental influences between psychopathic tendencies and autistic traits overlapped. Poorer emotion attribution ability was associated with increased psychopathic tendencies and autistic traits, and these associations were mainly explained by common genetic factors.

  A. P Jones , R Haynes , V Sauerzapf , S. M Crawford and D. Forman
  Background

There is some previous evidence that diagnosis of cancer at death, recorded as registry death certificate only records, is associated with problems of access to care.

Methods

Records from the Northern and Yorkshire Cancer Registry for patients registered with breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian or prostate cancer between 1994 and 2002 were supplemented with measures of travel time to general practitioner and hospital services, and social deprivation. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of records where diagnosis was at death.

Results

There was no association between the odds diagnosis at death and access to primary care. For all sites except breast, the highest odds of being a cancer diagnosed at death fell among those living in the highest quartile of hospital travel time, although it was only statistically significant for colorectal and ovary tumours. Those in the most deprived and furthest travel time to hospital quartile were 2.6 times more likely to be a diagnosis at death case compared with those in the most affluent and proximal areas.

Conclusions

There is some evidence that poorer geographical access to tertiary care, in particular when coupled with social disadvantages, may be associated with increased odds of diagnosis at death.

 
 
 
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