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Articles by A. M Richards
Total Records ( 3 ) for A. M Richards
  K. L Ellis , A. P Pilbrow , C. M Frampton , R. N Doughty , G. A Whalley , C. J Ellis , B. R Palmer , L Skelton , T. G Yandle , S. C Palmer , R. W Troughton , A. M Richards and V. A. Cameron

Chromosome 9p21.3 (chr9p21.3) recently was identified by several genome-wide association studies as the genomic region most strongly associated with the risk of coronary artery disease. Within the chr9p21.3 locus, the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1333049 has been demonstrated to be most strongly associated with susceptibility to developing coronary artery disease. However, the effect of rs1333049 on clinical outcomes in patients with established coronary disease has yet to be determined.

Methods and Results—

Coronary Disease Cohort Study (CDCS) (n=1054) and Post-Myocardial Infarction (PMI) (n=816) study participants were genotyped for rs1333049. Clinical history, circulating lipids, neurohormones, cardiac function, and discharge medications were documented. All-cause mortality and cardiovascular hospital readmissions were recorded over a median follow-up period of 4.0 years for the CDCS cohort and 9.1 years for the PMI cohort. The CDCS patients homozygous for the high-risk C allele had an age of onset 2 to 5 years earlier for coronary disease (P=.005), angina (P=.025), myocardial infarction (P=.022), and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (P=.009). Patients with the CC genotype also had higher levels of total cholesterol (P=.033) and triglycerides (P=.003). The PMI participants with the CC genotype were 3 years younger on admission (P=.009). Cox proportional hazards analysis adjusting for established predictors of increased risk showed no significant association between rs1333049 genotype and mortality in either the CDCS (P=.214) or the PMI (P=.696) cohorts.


The chr9p21.3 polymorphism rs1333049 was associated with an earlier age of disease onset in 2 coronary disease cohorts but not with poorer clinical outcome in either cohort.

  S. C Palmer , Z. H Endre , A. M Richards and T. G. Yandle

Background: Urine amino-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations may exclude the presence of heart failure and provide insight into renal clearance mechanisms for human NT-proBNP. We characterized the molecular forms of urine NT-proBNP detected by immunoassay.

Methods: Urine from patients with heart failure was subjected to HPLC and analyzed using immunoassays specific toward different epitopes of NT-proBNP. We assessed urine NT-proBNP immunoreactivity in healthy subjects and patients with heart failure.

Results: Size-exclusion chromatography of heart failure urine identified no NT-proBNP immunoreactivity coeluting with NT-proBNP(1–76); multiple immunoreactive NT-proBNP fragments were present. The absence of intact urinary NT-proBNP was supported by reversed-phase HPLC. Urine NT-proBNP immunoreactivity was higher in patients with acute [median 192 (interquartile range 108–1445) pg/mg creatinine] and chronic [52 (15–118) pg/mg creatinine] heart failure than in healthy subjects [4.2 (2.6–5.8) pg/mg creatinine] (P < 0.001). In 40 patients with heart failure, urine NT-proBNP immunoreactivity correlated with plasma NT-proBNP (r = 0.72, P < 0.001) and inversely with left ventricular ejection fraction (r = –0.33, P = 0.04).

Conclusions: Our findings clarify previous reported relationships of urine NT-proBNP–like immunoreactivity with plasma NT-proBNP concentrations and the diagnosis of heart failure. As urine NT-proBNP immunoreactivity is not intact NT-proBNP(1–76), but rather reflects assorted metabolites, the diagnostic performance of NT-proBNP assays in urine may be assay specific, necessitating validation of biomarker performance on an assay-by-assay basis. .

  Y. H Chen , T. G Yandle , A. M Richards and S. C. Palmer

Background: The sources of secretion and clearance of plasma urotensin II (UII) in the human circulation remain uncertain and may be relevant to understanding the role of UII in human physiology and cardiovascular disease.

Methods: In 94 subjects undergoing clinically indicated cardiac catheterization, we collected blood samples from arterial and multiple venous sites to measure transorgan gradients of plasma UII immunoreactivity.

Results: Net UII release occurred (in descending order of proportional transorgan gradient) across the heart, kidney, head and neck, liver, lower limb, and pulmonary circulations (P < 0.01). Although no specific clearance site was localized, the absence of an overall subdiaphragmatic aorto-caval peptide gradient indicated that there were lower body segment sites of UII clearance as well as secretion. The proportional increase in UII immunoreactivity was significantly correlated across all sites of net peptide release within an individual (P ≤ 0.05). In univariate analyses, mixed venous UII concentrations were correlated with diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome and femoral artery oxygen tension and inversely with systolic blood pressure and body mass index. Diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome and body mass index were independent predictors of mixed venous UII immunoreactivity in multivariate analysis. No correlates of net cardiac UII release were identified.

Conclusions: UII is secreted from the heart and multiple other tissues into the circulation. Related increments in UII immunoreactivity across multiple tissue sites suggest that peptide release occurs via a shared mechanism. Increased UII immunoreactivity is observed in subjects with acute coronary syndrome.

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