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Articles by A. M Nick
Total Records ( 2 ) for A. M Nick
  L. S Mangala , V Zuzel , R Schmandt , E. S Leshane , J. B Halder , G. N Armaiz Pena , W. A Spannuth , T Tanaka , M. M.K Shahzad , Y. G Lin , A. M Nick , C. G Danes , J. W Lee , N. B Jennings , P. E Vivas Mejia , J. K Wolf , R. L Coleman , Z. H Siddik , G Lopez Berestein , S Lutsenko and A. K. Sood
 

Purpose: Resistance to platinum chemotherapy remains a significant problem in ovarian carcinoma. Here, we examined the biological mechanisms and therapeutic potential of targeting a critical platinum resistance gene, ATP7B, using both in vitro and in vivo models.

Experimental Design: Expression of ATP7A and ATP7B was examined in ovarian cancer cell lines by real-time reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis. ATP7A and ATP7B gene silencing was achieved with targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) and its effects on cell viability and DNA adduct formation were examined. For in vivo therapy experiments, siRNA was incorporated into the neutral nanoliposome 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC).

Results: ATP7A and ATP7B genes were expressed at higher levels in platinum-resistant cells compared with sensitive cells; however, only differences in ATP7B reached statistical significance. ATP7A gene silencing had no significant effect on the sensitivity of resistant cells to cisplatin, but ATP7B silencing resulted in 2.5-fold reduction of cisplatin IC50 levels and increased DNA adduct formation in cisplatin-resistant cells (A2780-CP20 and RMG2). Cisplatin was found to bind to the NH2-terminal copper-binding domain of ATP7B, which might be a contributing factor to cisplatin resistance. For in vivo therapy experiments, ATP7B siRNA was incorporated into DOPC and was highly effective in reducing tumor growth in combination with cisplatin (70-88% reduction in both models compared with controls). This reduction in tumor growth was accompanied by reduced proliferation, increased tumor cell apoptosis, and reduced angiogenesis.

Conclusion: These data provide a new understanding of cisplatin resistance in cancer cells and may have implications for therapeutic reversal of drug resistance.

  J. W Lee , H. D Han , M. M. K Shahzad , S. W Kim , L. S Mangala , A. M Nick , C Lu , R. R Langley , R Schmandt , H. S Kim , S Mao , J Gooya , C Fazenbaker , D Jackson , D. A Tice , C. N Landen , R. L Coleman and A. K. Sood
  Background

EphA2 is overexpressed in many types of human cancer but is absent or expressed at low levels in normal epithelial tissues. We investigated whether a novel immunoconjugate containing an anti-EphA2 monoclonal antibody (1C1) linked to a chemotherapeutic agent (monomethyl auristatin phenylalanine [MMAF]) through a noncleavable linker maleimidocaproyl (mc) had antitumor activity against ovarian cancer cell lines and tumor models.

Methods

Specificity of 1C1-mcMMAF was examined in EphA2-positive HeyA8 and EphA2-negative SKMel28 ovarian cancer cells by antibody binding and internalization assays. Controls were phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), 1C1, or control IgG-mcMMAF. Viability and apoptosis were investigated in ovarian cancer cell lines and tumor models (10 mice per group). Antitumor activities were tested in the HeyA8-luc and SKOV3ip1 orthotopic mouse models of ovarian cancer. Endothelial cells were identified by use of immunohistochemistry and anti-CD31 antibodies. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results

The 1C1-mcMMAF immunoconjugate specifically bound to EphA2-positive HeyA8 cells but not to EphA2-negative cells and was internalized by HeyA8 cells. Treatment with 1C1-mcMMAF decreased the viability of HeyA8-luc cells in an EphA2-specific manner. In orthotopic mouse models, treatment with 1C1-mcMMAF inhibited tumor growth by 85%–98% compared with that in control mice (eg, for weight of HeyA8 tumors, 1C1-mcMMAF = 0.05 g and control = 1.03 g; difference = 0.98 g, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.40 to 1.58 g; P = .001). Even in bulkier disease models with HeyA8-luc cells, 1C1-mcMMAF treatment, compared with control treatment, caused regression of established tumors and increased survival of the mice (eg, 1C1-mcMMAF vs control, mean = 60.6 days vs 29.4 days; difference = 31.2 days, 95% CI = 27.6 to 31.2 days; P = .001). The antitumor effects of 1C1-mcMMAF therapy, in SKOV3ip1 tumors, for example, were statistically significantly related to decreased proliferation (eg, 1C1-mcMMAF vs control, mean = 44.1% vs 55.8% proliferating cells; difference = 11.7%, 95% CI = 2.45% to 20.9%; P = .01) and increased apoptosis of tumor cells (eg, 1C1-mcMMAF vs control, mean = 8.6% vs 0.9% apoptotic cells; difference = 7.7%, 95% CI = 3.8% to 11.7%; P < .001) and of mouse endothelial cells (eg, 1C1-mcMMAF vs control, mean 2.8% vs 0.4% apoptotic endothelial cells; difference = 2.4%, 95% CI = 1.4% to 4.6%; P = .034).

Conclusion

The 1C1-mcMMAF immunoconjugate had antitumor activity in preclinical models of ovarian carcinoma.

 
 
 
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