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Articles by A. M Goldstein
Total Records ( 4 ) for A. M Goldstein
  P. T Bradford , D. M Freedman , A. M Goldstein and M. A. Tucker
 

Objective  To quantify the risk of subsequent primary cancers among patients with primary cutaneous malignant melanoma.

Design  Population-based registry study.

Setting  We evaluated data from 9 cancer registries of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program from 1973-2006.

Participants  We included 89 515 patients who survived at least 2 months after their initial melanoma diagnosis.

Results  Of the patients with melanoma, 10 857 (12.1%) developed 1 or more subsequent primary cancers. The overall risk of a subsequent primary cancer increased by 28% (observed to expected [O:E] ratio = 1.28). One quarter of the cancers were subsequent primary melanomas (O:E = 8.61). Women with head and neck melanoma and patients younger than 30 had markedly increased risks (O:E = 13.22 and 13.40, respectively) of developing a subsequent melanoma. Second melanomas were more likely to be thin than were the first of multiple primary melanomas (thickness at diagnosis <1.00 mm, 77.9% vs 70.3%, respectively; P < .001). Melanoma survivors had increased risk of developing several cancers; the most common cancers with elevated risks were breast, prostate, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (O:E = 1.10, 1.15, and 1.25, respectively).

Conclusions  Melanoma survivors have an approximately 9-fold increased risk of developing subsequent melanoma compared with the general population. The risk remains elevated more than 20 years after the initial melanoma diagnosis. This increased risk may be owing to behavioral factors, genetic susceptibility, or medical surveillance. Although the percentage of subsequent primary melanomas thicker than 1 mm is lower than for the first of multiple primary melanomas, it is still substantial. Melanoma survivors should remain under surveillance not only for recurrence but also for future primary melanomas and other cancers.

  D Nehra , A. M Goldstein , D. P Doody , D. P Ryan , Y Chang and P. T. Masiakos
 

Objective  To determine the efficacy of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for nonneonatal acute respiratory failure.

Design  Single-institution, retrospective medical record review from February 1990 to March 2008.

Setting  Tertiary care hospital.

Patients  Eighty-one nonneonatal patients (mean age, 23 years; age range, 2 months to 61 years) with acute respiratory failure who had failed maximal ventilator support received ECMO therapy between 1990 and 2008. Patients were grouped into 6 categories based on diagnosis: sepsis (n = 8), bacterial or fungal pneumonia (n = 15), viral pneumonia (n = 9), trauma or burn (n = 10), immunocompromise (n = 15), and other (n = 24).

Main Outcome Measure  Survival to hospital discharge.

Results  Overall survival was 53%. Survival was highest in patients with viral pneumonia (78%), followed by bacterial pneumonia (53%), sepsis syndrome (44%), and immunocompromise (40%). Patients treated following trauma or burns had the lowest survival (33%). The average age was 19 years for survivors as compared with 27 years for nonsurvivors. Survival was lower in patients with multiple organ failure as compared with those with single organ failure (33% vs 60%, respectively), in patients who experienced mechanical ventilation for longer than 10 days prior to the initiation of ECMO as compared with those who received ventilatory support for less than 10 days prior to the initiation of ECMO (31% vs 57%, respectively), and in patients requiring more than 400 hours of ECMO support as compared with those requiring less than 400 hours of ECMO support (42% vs 55%, respectively).

Conclusions  Therapy with ECMO may provide a survival benefit in carefully selected patients with nonneonatal acute respiratory failure who have failed maximal ventilator support. Nonneonatal survival with ECMO therapy is strongly dependent on diagnosis, with the highest survival seen in those with viral or bacterial pneumonia. Older age, multiple organ failure, prolonged ventilation prior to ECMO initiation, and long ECMO runs are associated with decreased survival.

  T. K Lam , M Rotunno , J. H Lubin , S Wacholder , D Consonni , A. C Pesatori , P. A Bertazzi , S. J Chanock , L Burdette , A. M Goldstein , M. A Tucker , N. E Caporaso , A. F Subar and M. T. Landi
 

Epidemiological and mechanistic evidence on the association of quercetin-rich food intake with lung cancer risk and carcinogenesis are inconclusive. We investigated the role of dietary quercetin and the interaction between quercetin and P450 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms on lung cancer risk in 1822 incident lung cancer cases and 1991 frequency-matched controls from the Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology study. In non-tumor lung tissue from 38 adenocarcinoma patients, we assessed the correlation between quercetin intake and messenger RNA expression of the same P450 and GST metabolic genes. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for sex-specific quintiles of intake were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for putative risk factors. Frequent intake of quercetin-rich foods was inversely associated with lung cancer risk (OR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.37–0.67; P-trend < 0.001) and did not differ by P450 or GST genotypes, gender or histological subtypes. The association was stronger in subjects who smoked >20 cigarettes per day (OR = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.19–0.66; P-trend = 0.003). Based on a two-sample t-test, we compared gene expression and high versus low consumption of quercetin-rich foods and observed an overall upregulation of GSTM1, GSTM2, GSTT2, and GSTP1 as well as a downregulation of specific P450 genes (P-values < 0.05, adjusted for age and smoking status). In conclusion, we observed an inverse association of quercetin-rich food with lung cancer risk and identified a possible mechanism of quercetin-related changes in the expression of genes involved in the metabolism of tobacco carcinogens in humans. Our findings suggest an interplay between quercetin intake, tobacco smoking, and lung cancer risk. Further research on this relationship is warranted.

  F Demenais , H Mohamdi , V Chaudru , A. M Goldstein , J. A Newton Bishop , D. T Bishop , P. A Kanetsky , N. K Hayward , E Gillanders , D. E Elder , M. F Avril , E Azizi , P van Belle , W Bergman , G Bianchi Scarra , B Bressac de Paillerets , D Calista , C Carrera , J Hansson , M Harland , D Hogg , V Hoiom , E. A Holland , C Ingvar , M. T Landi , J. M Lang , R. M Mackie , G. J Mann , M. E Ming , C. J Njauw , H Olsson , J Palmer , L Pastorino , S Puig , J Randerson Moor , M Stark , H Tsao , M. A Tucker , P van der Velden , X. R Yang , N Gruis and and the Melanoma Genetics Consortium
  Background

Carrying the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) germline mutations is associated with a high risk for melanoma. Penetrance of CDKN2A mutations is modified by pigmentation characteristics, nevus phenotypes, and some variants of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (MC1R), which is known to have a role in the pigmentation process. However, investigation of the associations of both MC1R variants and host phenotypes with melanoma risk has been limited.

Methods

We included 815 CDKN2A mutation carriers (473 affected, and 342 unaffected, with melanoma) from 186 families from 15 centers in Europe, North America, and Australia who participated in the Melanoma Genetics Consortium. In this family-based study, we assessed the associations of the four most frequent MC1R variants (V60L, V92M, R151C, and R160W) and the number of variants (1, ≥2 variants), alone or jointly with the host phenotypes (hair color, propensity to sunburn, and number of nevi), with melanoma risk in CDKN2A mutation carriers. These associations were estimated and tested using generalized estimating equations. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results

Carrying any one of the four most frequent MC1R variants (V60L, V92M, R151C, R160W) in CDKN2A mutation carriers was associated with a statistically significantly increased risk for melanoma across all continents (1.24 x 10–6P ≤ .0007). A consistent pattern of increase in melanoma risk was also associated with increase in number of MC1R variants. The risk of melanoma associated with at least two MC1R variants was 2.6-fold higher than the risk associated with only one variant (odds ratio = 5.83 [95% confidence interval = 3.60 to 9.46] vs 2.25 [95% confidence interval = 1.44 to 3.52]; Ptrend = 1.86 x 10–8). The joint analysis of MC1R variants and host phenotypes showed statistically significant associations of melanoma risk, together with MC1R variants (.0001 ≤ P ≤ .04), hair color (.006 ≤ P ≤ .06), and number of nevi (6.9 x 10–6P ≤ .02).

Conclusion

Results show that MC1R variants, hair color, and number of nevi were jointly associated with melanoma risk in CDKN2A mutation carriers. This joint association may have important consequences for risk assessments in familial settings.

 
 
 
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