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Articles by A. K. Aggarwal
Total Records ( 2 ) for A. K. Aggarwal
  M. S. S Kishore , P Kumar and A. K. Aggarwal
 

Background: National family health survey-3 of India has revealed startling lower exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rates (16.9%) in the state of Haryana compared with national data (46%). The barriers to breastfeeding in this population are not clearly known. Therefore, a study was conducted in a rural population of the state to study their breastfeeding practices, knowledge regarding usefulness of breastfeeding and factors influencing the breastfeeding practices.

Methods: In six villages of Panchkula district of Haryana, all the mothers of infants between 0–6 months were interviewed using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Time at initiation of breastfeeding, duration of EBF and their understanding about the usefulness of breastfeeding were assessed. Position of the baby during breastfeeding and attachment of the baby's mouth to the breast were assessed by direct observation while feeding. Breastfeeding knowledge of the mother was evaluated.

Results: Out of the 77 mothers, 30% and 10% exclusively breastfed their infants till 4 and 6 months of age, respectively. There was ‘good attachment’ in 42% mother–infant pairs and infants were held in ‘correct position’ by 60% mothers. Thirty-nine percent of the mothers had ‘satisfactory’ breastfeeding knowledge. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, lack of breastfeeding counseling was significantly associated with decreased rates of EBF at 4 months and 6 months (p-value 0.01 and 0.002, respectively) and ‘full’ breastfeeding (FBF) at 6 months of age (p-value 0.002).

Conclusions: EBF/FBF practices and breastfeeding knowledge are suboptimal among the rural North Indian mothers. Breastfeeding counseling with emphasis on correct technique can improve the EBF/FBF rates.

  Y. K Gupta , T. H Lee , T. A Edwards , C. R Escalante , L. Y Kadyrova , R. P Wharton and A. K. Aggarwal
 

Pumilio controls a number of processes in eukaryotes, including the translational repression of hunchback (hb) mRNA in early Drosophila embryos. The Pumilio Puf domain binds to a pair of 32 nucleotide (nt) Nanos response elements (NRE1 and NRE2) within the 3' untranslated region of hb mRNA. Despite the elucidation of structures of human Pumilio Puf domain in complex with hb RNA elements, the nature of hb mRNA recognition remains unclear. In particular, the site that mediates regulation in vivo is significantly larger than the 8–10-nt RNA elements bound to single Puf molecules in crystal structures. Here we present biophysical and biochemical data that partially resolve the paradox. We show that each NRE is composed of two binding sites (Box A and Box B) and that two Puf domains can co-occupy a single NRE. The Puf domains have a higher affinity for the 3' Box B site than the 5' Box A site; binding to the intact NRE appears to be cooperative (at least in some experiments). We suggest that the 2 Pumilio:1 NRE complex is the functional regulatory unit in vivo.

 
 
 
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