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Articles by A. Hinton
Total Records ( 6 ) for A. Hinton
  J.K. Northcutt , D.R. Jones , K.D. Ingram , A. Hinton , Jr. and M.T. Musgrove
  Total aerobic bacteria, molds/yeasts, coliforms and pseudomonads in the air in three shell egg processing operations (in-line, off-line and mixed operations) were determined using MicroBio MB2 Air Samplers. Sites were sampled from each facility on three different days (replication) during the same week. Four air samples (1000 L each) were drawn from each sampling site on a given day. Sampling sites, included areas in or near the following on-site locations: hen house (in-line and mixed operations), farm transition room (in-line and mixed operations), egg washers, egg dryer, packer heads, post-processing cooler, nest-run cooler (off-line and mixed operations), loading dock and dry storage. Type of operation (in-line, off-line or mixed), sampling site and the interaction between operation and site had a significant effect on the number of total aerobic bacteria, molds/yeasts, coliforms and pseudomonads recovered (P < 0.05). Highest counts for total aerobic bacteria (5.9 log10 cfu/ml air), molds/yeasts (4.0 log10 cfu/ml air) and coliforms (2.5 log10 cfu/ml air) were found in the hen house. Highest counts for pseudomonads were found in the hen house (3.2 log10 cfu/ml air) and behind the egg washer (3.5 log10 cfu/ml air). Lowest counts for total aerobic bacteria (2.5 log10 cfu/ml air) and molds/yeast (2.7 log10 cfu/ml air) were found in the post-processing cooler. Few samples in the post-processing coolers, nest-run coolers, loading docks and dry storage areas tested positive for coliforms (0/36, 2/24, 1/36 and 0/36, respectively) and pseudomonads (1/36, 2/24, 5/36 and 6/36, respectively). Data gathered during this study has been useful in identifying the sources and levels of airborne contaminates in commercial shell egg processing facilities.
  A. Hinton , Jr. , J.A. Cason , M.E. Hume and K.D. Ingram
  The presence of Campylobacter spp. on broiler carcasses and in scald tank water in a commercial poultry processing facility was monitored at monthly intervals from July through December. The spread of the pathogen had previously been monitored in the same facility from January through June of the same year. Campylobacter were enumerated on prescalded, picked, eviscerated, and chilled broiler carcasses; on processed carcasses stored at 4°C for 7 or 14 days, and in scald tank water samples. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile of the Campylobacter isolates and the degree of relatedness between the Campylobacter isolates was determined using the MIDI Sherlock Microbial Identification System (MIS). Findings indicated that Campylobacter jejuni was present on carcasses and in scald tank water samples collected from July through December. Processing significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the number of Campylobacter recovered from broiler carcasses, however. Furthermore, significantly (P < 0.05) fewer C. jejuni were consistently recovered from the third tank of the multiple tank scald system than from the first tank. Findings indicated that poultry flocks may introduce several strains of C. jejuni into processing facilities. Additionally, different populations of the pathogen may be carried into the processing plant by successive broiler flocks, and some strains of C. jejuni may reappear in the same processing facility during different times of the year.
  A.C. Murry , Jr. , A. Hinton , Jr. and H. Morrison
  Two dominant strains of lactobacilli isolated from a botanical probiotic were identified and evaluated to determine their ability to inhibit the in vitro growth of E. coli, S. typhimurium, and C. perfringens on a medium that simulated a normal starter and grower diet for broiler chickens. The two strains identified were Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus plantarum. In the inhibition assay in vitro, both strains of Lactobacillus from the probiotic inhibited (P < 0.001) growth of E. coli, S. typhimurium, and C. perfringens for both the starter and grower diets when compared to the control diets. Both strains of Lactobacillus for both the starter and grower diets produced more (P < 0.001) acetic and lactic acid than was found in the control diets. Also, the pH of the media with cultures of L. plantarum and L. salivarius for both the starter and grower diets was lower (P < 0.001) than for the control diets. These results indicate that L. salivarius and L. plantarum contained in the botanical probiotic can ferment carbohydrates in poultry feed to produce pH levels and concentrations of lactic and acetic acid that inhibit the growth of E. coli, S. typhimurium, and C. perfringens.
  J.A. Cason , R.J. Buhr , A. Hinton , Jr. , M.E. Berrang and N.A. Cox
  Lactic-acid-producing bacterial cultures were applied to the skin of live broilers 24 hours before slaughter to determine whether inoculation with the cultures could affect the numbers of bacteria that are normally found on the skin of processed broiler carcasses. The cultures contained 10,000 to 100,000 cfu/mL and were suspended in 250 mL of a pH 6.0 nutrient medium (including glucose, peptone, beef extract, yeast extract, a surfactant, and salts) intended to enhance the survival and growth of the cultures. With broilers suspended by the feet, feathers were moved aside and the liquid suspension was sprayed directly on the skin. Sprayed broilers were then returned to a pen. In each of three replications, 4 six-wk-old broilers were sprayed and 4 broilers were kept as untreated controls. The following day, broilers were processed in a research processing facility and defeathered carcasses were sampled by rinsing for 1 min in 200 mL of peptone water after removal of heads and feet. Coliforms, E. coli, lactic-acid bacteria, and Campylobacter in carcass rinses were enumerated by standard methods. After removal of aliquots for plating, the remaining sample volume was enriched to detect Salmonella. No differences were found in log10(cfu/mL) of coliforms, E. coli, or lactic-acid bacteria between the treated and control carcasses. Salmonella bacteria were present on some carcasses, but with no difference between treatments. Campylobacter spp. were present in only one replication, so numbers of Campylobacter could not be analyzed statistically. Spraying lactic-acid-producing bacteria with nutrients on the skin of live broilers on the day before processing appears to have no effect on numbers of bacteria that are present on the skin after defeathering.
  A.C. Murry , Jr. , A. Hinton , Jr. and R.J. Buhr
  This study was conducted to examine the effect of feeding a botanical probiotic (Feed Free™) containing Lactobacillus on growth performance of broiler chickens from 1 to 42 d of age. At 56 d, five broilers per pen were killed and processed to determine bacteria populations in the ceca, cloaca, and carcass rinse. The dietary treatments were the basal diet with coccidiostat and antibiotic (control), basal diet without coccidiostat and antibiotic (negative control) and basal diet supplemented with 0.10% probiotic. The results showed that body weights and average weight gain were not different (P > 0.05) due to treatment. Feed intake and feed to gain ratio from 22 to 42 d of age were lower (P < 0.001) for broilers fed 0.10% probiotic than broilers fed the control diets. The population of Lactobacilli recovered from cloaca contents was higher (P < 0.002) and the population of Clostridium perfringens recovered from cloaca contents was lower (P < 0.02) for broilers fed the 0.10% probiotic diet than for those fed the control diets. The population C. jejuni recovered from carcass rinses for broilers fed the diet supplemented with the probiotic tended (P < 0.11) to be lower when compared to the negative control. These results suggest that diets supplemented with the botanical probiotic containing Lactobacillus supports growth for broilers similar to the basal diet supplemented with antibiotic and coccidiostat, and with lower feed to gain ratio. Also, the botanical probiotic may reduce C. perfringens and C. jejuni in market-age broilers.
  J.A. Cason , A. Hinton and Jr.
  Suspended bacteria were enumerated in scald water and carcass rinse samples from a commercial broiler chicken processing plant with a multiple-tank, counterflow scalder. Coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter were enumerated and the Most Probable Number (MPN) of salmonellae was determined in water samples from each of three scald tanks, from a dip tank located between defeathering machines, and in rinses of carcasses removed from the processing line immediately after defeathering. Mean coliform concentrations in Tanks 1, 2, and 3 were 4.6, 2.5, and 1.6 log10(cfu/ml), respectively. E. coli concentrations followed the same pattern with means of 4.4, 2.1, and 1.4 in Tanks 1, 2, and 3, respectively, with significant differences (P< 0.05) in the concentrations of both coliforms and E. coli between tanks. Mean Campylobacter concentration in four positive samples from Tank 1 was 4.0 log10 (cfu/ml), but only one water sample from Tank 2 and none from Tank 3 were Campylobacter positive. Coliforms and E. coli were found in dip tank samples in only two instances, with no isolations of Campylobacter or salmonellae. Mean numbers of coliforms, E. coli, and Campylobacter in carcass rinses were 3.1, 2.7, and 3.3 log10(cfu/ml). Salmonellae were isolated from five of six water samples from Tank 1 with a mean MPN of 13.3/100mL, but were isolated from only three of six water samples from Tank 2 and two of six from Tank 3. Salmonellae were isolated from half (18/36) of all carcass rinses. Most bacteria suspended in scald water were found in the first tank, with no Campylobacter or salmonellae found in the dip tank. Counterflow, multiple-tank scalders appear to reduce the opportunity for cross-contamination during scalding.
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