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Articles by A. H Harrill
Total Records ( 4 ) for A. H Harrill
  A. H Harrill , P. B Watkins , S Su , P. K Ross , D. E Harbourt , I. M Stylianou , G. A Boorman , M. W Russo , R. S Sackler , S. C Harris , P. C Smith , R Tennant , M Bogue , K Paigen , C Harris , T Contractor , T Wiltshire , I Rusyn and D. W. Threadgill
 

Interindividual variability in response to chemicals and drugs is a common regulatory concern. It is assumed that xenobiotic-induced adverse reactions have a strong genetic basis, but many mechanism-based investigations have not been successful in identifying susceptible individuals. While recent advances in pharmacogenetics of adverse drug reactions show promise, the small size of the populations susceptible to important adverse events limits the utility of whole-genome association studies conducted entirely in humans. We present a strategy to identify genetic polymorphisms that may underlie susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. First, in a cohort of healthy adults who received the maximum recommended dose of acetaminophen (4 g/d x 7 d), we confirm that about one third of subjects develop elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase, indicative of liver injury. To identify the genetic basis for this susceptibility, a panel of 36 inbred mouse strains was used to model genetic diversity. Mice were treated with 300 mg/kg or a range of additional acetaminophen doses, and the extent of liver injury was quantified. We then employed whole-genome association analysis and targeted sequencing to determine that polymorphisms in Ly86, Cd44, Cd59a, and Capn8 correlate strongly with liver injury and demonstrated that dose-curves vary with background. Finally, we demonstrated that variation in the orthologous human gene, CD44, is associated with susceptibility to acetaminophen in two independent cohorts. Our results indicate a role for CD44 in modulation of susceptibility to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. These studies demonstrate that a diverse mouse population can be used to understand and predict adverse toxicity in heterogeneous human populations through guided resequencing.

  A. H Harrill , P. K Ross , D. M Gatti , D. W Threadgill and I. Rusyn
 

Toxicogenomic studies are increasingly used to uncover potential biomarkers of adverse health events, enrich chemical risk assessment, and to facilitate proper identification and treatment of persons susceptible to toxicity. Current approaches to biomarker discovery through gene expression profiling usually utilize a single or few strains of rodents, limiting the ability to detect biomarkers that may represent the wide range of toxicity responses typically observed in genetically heterogeneous human populations. To enhance the utility of animal models to detect response biomarkers for genetically diverse populations, we used a laboratory mouse strain diversity panel. Specifically, mice from 36 inbred strains derived from Mus mus musculus, Mus mus castaneous, and Mus mus domesticus origins were treated with a model hepatotoxic agent, acetaminophen (300 mg/kg, ig). Gene expression profiling was performed on liver tissue collected at 24 h after dosing. We identified 26 population-wide biomarkers of response to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in which the changes in gene expression were significant across treatment and liver necrosis score but not significant for individual mouse strains. Importantly, most of these biomarker genes are part of the intracellular signaling involved in hepatocyte death and include genes previously associated with acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity, such as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21) and interleukin 6 signal transducer (Il6st), and genes not previously associated with acetaminophen, such as oncostatin M receptor (Osmr) and MLX interacting protein like (Mlxipl). Our data demonstrate that a multistrain approach may provide utility for understanding genotype-independent toxicity responses and facilitate identification of novel targets of therapeutic intervention.

 
 
 
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